107 views
> 1. **Generalization of the concept 概念的一般情形** * **目的段落 PDF p419** 1)This is not the place to study the patterns (in Capital) of how reproduction on an extended scale functioned, or to give a close analysis of the historicity and diversity of the historical situations during this process, or to describe the changing historical conditions of accumulation. 追溯这两个概念不是为了研究的在不断扩大的规模中(资本)模式是怎样运行的,也不是分析在这个过程中发生了什么样历史性、多样性的变化,或是试图去描述在累积过程中变化的历史条件。 Some people in the Marxist movement have been too exclusive in attributing the simple requirements of industrialization to the ferocity of the bourgeoisie.We now know that no nation and no country can escape these torments, although the modalities and the nature of the devastation may differ. 在马克思运动中有一部分人容易把工业化进程中出现的简单需求统统归于新兴资产阶级的迫切渴望,但我们在现代化进程中都会经历这种苦痛,虽然遭遇的形态可能有所不同。 * **追溯段落 ** When we examine this early ‘capitalization’ of techniques, we discover the complexity of the historical conditions: the renewal of urban life, the recovery in commercial exchanges, the rediscovery of Greek science.……Technical progress in the Middle Ages was due to the fusion of several contributions, as much as it was to any special inventive capability. What did these contributions have in common? How can we explain the renewal of this inventive capability? It was a moment when thought was rediscovering the ability to be conceptual and abstract. 我们在观察早期技术中的[资本化]的时候发现一些历史条件的复杂性:都市生活的兴起,商业的复兴……中世界的技术进步源于各方的融合,我们怎么来比较、解释当时的发明能力呢?或许但下是一个把当时的这种能力进行抽象概念化总结的时机。 PDF p420 2)Only logic defines a coherence on a level which is above and beyond nature, empiricism and spontaneous sociability. Using the rediscovery of Greek culture, and on an analogous economic base, but without an unmediated or mechanical link between this ‘base’ and the acquisitions it facilitated, the Middle Ages were able to redefine the form which the process of accumulation would take. Then, after having been interrupted and slowed down for many centuries, the process gained impetus, producing a veritable discontinuity in the sixteenth century (which is inaccurately called the Renaissance). 文艺复兴也许可以看成是[累积过程]于中世纪萌发一定社会基础之后,在十六世纪的显现(?) * **分析段落 ** 1)Knowledge is an accumulative process, and so is technology. 到这儿我们关于[累积]理解更宽泛了,知识和技术的累积一齐加工出了资本的累积。 2)It is a sheaf, a fasces. Once we have distinguished between them, its components themselves appear to be accumulative processes. Rationality, for example, has an accumulative character. 起初我们可能觉得累积过程是同一的,但在追溯它时可以看到它是由几个不同的过程集结成一束的,可以看清是由哪些组成的,比如合理性就有累积的特质。 Every process of accumulation can be represented schematically by an exponential curve……When of necessity the process involves factors which slow it down (more or less deep and lasting saturation), the exponential curve takes on a much more complicated form, called a ‘logistic’ curve.5 (PDF好像无注释)) 累积过程可以通过指数型曲线来表达。我们可以把观察到的近五个世纪的情况用这类曲线进行图示化,可以看到哪一个是中枢(axis),关键时机/时势(conjunctures)和事件是怎样影响(减慢或干扰)累积过程的。 我们还能借此推测出一般性规律的历史周期变化是怎样随政治经济、社会、历史等因素重新定义自身的,分为几个时期: 4-1:First period: non-accumulative societies. 农业占主导地位的非累积型社会(公社):物物交换,在基本需求方面生产消耗供给平衡,人口增长率基本为零。知识/智能被看作是非凡的品质,并不是能累积的(传递传播开来的)。 社会遵循着循环周期(cyclic forms)发展,以习俗(custom)来凝聚社群。 PDF p421 4-2:Second period: Accumulative societies (or to be more poetic: Promethean societies). 过渡期社会:社会累积所需要的条件初形成开始冲击这个古老的世界((意识形态层面的冲击比如“文艺复兴”)循环周期的时间概念(cyclic time)被线性时间概念(linear time)所替代。法则(law)取代习俗(custom)成为社会主导,社会开始[社会化](socialization)。 4-3: A third period which would begin with the transformation of everyday life (following a deliberate and conscious policy) after a long and difficult transition. 第三时期可以从日常生活的转型开始算起,我们是不是需要用“现代化”来形容这种过渡? * **总结段落 ** 1)The economic sphere per se becomes the ‘base’ and the ‘axis’ of society and of its history.……It does not entirely suppress them, since the family persists, and within the process nationhood comes into being. By submitting to the process of accumulation, groups originally formed by consanguinity and territory become its means, its implements and its context. 这时起,经济领域自身成为了影响社会历史的基础和中枢。构成旧时社会的基本联系——血缘关系,也在不断运转变大的社会中模糊消逝,但家庭形式还是留存下来了,于是有个新概念“国家”产生了,旧有的血缘、地缘联系变成“国家”含义下的附属和一种工具。 2)But at the same time we witness the appearance and consolidation of the individual and of private life, and of individualism as ideology. 在[累积]时期,个体得到了一定自主权,他是存在了,但社会抛弃了他(和非累积时期的公社不同)。个人主义成为一种意识形态。 **PDF p422** 3)This colossal and colossally contradictory process has a third aspect: it differentiates between groups and segregates them.……Differences such as these precede, announce and accompany the great polarization into classes: bourgeoisie, proletariat, middle classes. They make phenomena more complicated and are part of the ‘socialization of society’, 在社会化(差异化、区隔化)的过程中,资产阶级,无产阶级,中产阶级分别出现。 (不知道此处资产阶级和中产阶级的区别是?一个是新兴出现的?) Analytic intelligence6 probably reached its crisis with the advent of the bourgeoisie and of rationalist ideology, but it was not solely their preserve, since on the theoretical and ideological level it is an element of all accumulation and of the division of labour.……From then on analysis split up everything which could be split, until it almost ruined and (apparently) atomized the social totality. 分解型智能应运而生,事物开始变得自治化(各因素之间区隔开来)。社会化的社会隐藏起了辩证活动(dialectical movement):趋向于整体统一/综合化(totalization),个人化(individualization or personalization)——个人主义(individualism)的发育不全状态,特殊化(particularization)。 Analytic intelligence6 (PDF里无注释,下文里这样形容) a socially and practically justified function **everyday life in relation to whatever is not everyday life.** PDF p423 Could it be born of a chance encounter between elements and factors which are mutually exclusive and with no connection other than this conjectural convergence, at a given moment in history? Or could it be the continuation of a deeper necessity? 究竟[累积过程]是原来互不干扰的各因素汇集在一个关键点产生的历史中的偶发事件,还是这其实是一种更深层意识/需求的延续? 我们可以推测,从生物/生理角度来看,生命过程中是有一个累积的趋势,同时也有一些抑制累积的因素,比如饱和与障碍(生物物种、猎物的例子——每个物种都是另一种的猎物)。 As this process develops, the human brain (or rather the cortex) also seems to be an organ capable of ‘capitalizing’ experiences.……Self-regulations are never perfect and never allow for the complete ‘capitalization’ of what has been acquired. 大脑皮层可能是会在进化中越来越能收集利用经验,但人的自我调整过程是绝不会经由收集利用变得把经验“资本化”的(比如记忆,知觉,智能的运作机制)。 7)Should we believe that in nature, cyclic rhythms originate in an embryonic accumulative process which returns to its point of departure? 既然这种[累积]的对抗性因素存在于社会、历史、经济中的方方面面,那么我们可以把非累积过程中的循环周期看成一个只是在最后回到了原点的,萌芽中的累积过程吗? > 2. **Non-accumulative processes 非累积的过程** * **分析段落PDF p424** The generalization we have just made of the concept of the accumulative process leads us to accept the existence of non-accumulative processes (not for the first time, but in a clearer light).……Surely we must see accumulative functions in the activities of the brain (disjunctions which work on distinctions and differences, and ‘capitalize’ them), as well as non-accumulative ones.This idea could lead us to reconsider Pavlovian representations, which link a number of facts together, but then transform them into a system by a way of thinking which ignores dialectical method.8(注释不知道写了什么) 通过对概念的梳理,我们对非累积过程有了一些新的认识(对机器模仿非累积过程的思考习惯有一定举例——有一天它们也许能感受到异化和非异化,还提到一些科幻小说使用的还是古老的神话迷思)。 2)Let us now move from the biological and physiological level to the psychological level in the total field we are hypothetically exploring. 工人的知觉是怎样被劳动塑造的?从观看拉斯科洞窟等古老壁画的过程中也许能找到劳动中的身体和抽象概念影响下的意识,是如何发生转换的线索。 What does labour bring to this initial layer of perceptions? A great deal; first of all, abstractions and signs, and then signals. 工人的感官知觉为抽象的符号、基本的信号所形塑。 PDF p425 4)我们会觉得感官知觉是会应用于情绪、情感上的,但这种为信号所形塑出来的知觉并没有[累积性],这可能是这些情绪遇到矛盾性的象征会结晶/凝结具体化(无法被抽象)的原因。这些[结晶]存在于我们意识深处的孤岛上,成为我们情绪、情感的核心象征。 When they are not used, exploited, consumed and devoured, they are attacked and concealed. When they crystallize (as the Father, the Mother, Woman, Virginity, Love, the Sun, the House, Water, Earth, Air, Fire, Hearth and Home) they degenerate, break up and scatter. They remain well outside the processes of accumulation.9(注释不知道写了什么) 并且始终处于累积进程之外。 * **总结段落** 由综上种种标准,我们可以把人类行为划分到两类进程中:累积的vs非累积的 This provides us with a starting point for an analysis of praxis and a representation of the process of human becoming. 这让我们有了一个新的看待人类进程的方式。 Nor is there any question of separating the two types of process. They are permanently interactive, so that when we describe and analyse that interaction, we perceive various gaps, imbalances, differences and conflicts between levels. If our experience of ‘modernity’is of a deep-rooted and ever-increasing malaise, our concepts will enable us to discover some of its causes and aspects, and perhaps to reveal the problem in its totality. 我们可以通过对累积-非累积活动的辨析来看待现代生活中遇到的隔阂、不平衡、差异、冲突,从而在看待问题时得到一个更为整体的认识。(这是一种上周有讲到的辩证活动吗?) On the other hand it sees itself increasingly ‘distanced’ by the process, which becomes dissociated in the giddy heights of specializations and technology. In itself, it remains linked to rhythms, to cyclic time scales and to symbols. 循环周期性的时间观念(或者说非累积的因素)还是存在于日常生活象征体系深处。 The everyday is situated at the boundary between the controlled sector (i.e., the sector controlled by knowledge) and the uncontrolled sector. 日常生活作为一个研究对象,它的位置处在可控与失控的边缘,一个未被清楚定义的区域。我们在现代生活中易产生的不安正源于这些藏于日常深处的象征性部分与后天习得抽象知识、技术之间的冲突。 **PDF p426** 5)从某种观点看,这样的不安相较知识累积过程,是很难得的,美好的,直接的体验,但也可以看成是有老派的,荒谬的落后怀旧情怀在其中。 同样的,也会有观点认为,只有累积出来的才是“真理”,是超过“真实”的,日常生活只是微不足道的,不必须的,但还有个也被广泛接收的观点认为日常生活是唯一和人类相关的。 7)It is as though cyclic time scales have been ripped asunder by the linear time of the process of accumulation and have been left to hang in tatters within us and around us. 哪怕这种象征性的隐喻性的(非累积的,结晶化的)语言再破碎,我们还是在生活中使用它们。 8)The result is an incessant tension, and thus the possibility of sterile conflicts and pathological deviations, both in individual consciousness and in social consciousness. 不同进程之间张力冲突的结果使个体意识和社会意识发生了偏离(我们开始使用“无意识”‘unconsciousness’这个词了)。公共生活尤其受到累积过程的影响,开始淹没(覆盖)私人生活,并批判私人生活是无力的,无意识的,但当公共生活开始迎合私人生活情况更糟了,它入侵它并想办法吸引它(比如发生在大众传媒上的各种事件)。 Within the individual, and at the heart of his consciousness and his ill-appropriated life,two processes are apparent: the rational and the irrational, the (relatively) conscious and the (relatively) unconscious. 反映在个体层面是理性与非理性,意思与无意识。 PDF p427 as soon as radical critique unmasks the situation in which consciousness and life are trapped, it seems intolerable, and we ask ourselves why the devastation is not even more destructive than it is. The pedagogic and culturalist illusion 教育法和文化主义的错觉 我们需要找到方法离开这样的情况,通过重建整体(totality)的实践(praxis)吗? By raising the everyday to the level of technology and by reinvesting technology in the everyday? 通过跟上/重新使用技术,或是把以前旧的象征体系打破重新启用新的? Therefore it is considered possible to ‘form’ them in the same way as conceptual or technical knowledge through the accumulation of experiences, facts or representations, and despite all the failures of fiction both in the individual and on the scale of society as a whole. 艺术领域的错觉/幻觉和成果可能是最好的观察对象。 艺术是以一个累积的方式增长的,它们堆积在各个博物馆和一本本画册,唱片,电影里成倍增多。观众们已经越来越容易去接近各个年代的作品,就好像通过把各种作品资源捆在一起,就能刺激我们的创造力似的,又或者,这些新生技术(“发展总是好的啦”——是列斐伏尔在括号里这么说的)正在成为自发性(spontaneity)的替代品。技术和创造力这两个概念正在互相融合。 带有贪婪掠夺倾向的庞大消费行为将各种混乱的作品、知识、技术串联在一起,串起了各个黄金年代恰好不是通过累积完成的,留予我们宝藏般真理的东西。这个成果成为了惊人的社会学现象:艺术感/美学(不是由单个的累积型特质产生的,也不能用这些特质来解释)和显而易见的,这永久性的危机:所谓的当代艺术。 In so far as there is such a thing as creativity, does it not come from a direct or indirect appeal to the symbolisms and the myths which supported it in times past, and from an effort to reinstate spontaneity in the face of the clutter of abstract culture and pedagogically cultivated consciousness? 但没什么能赦免象征主义们不可避免的瓦解,它们早就准备好要脱离轨道了,比如:占星学,超自然科学解释,科幻小说,漂亮的迷信和仪式化……和所有不能说它们是不是真的预言者还是只是因老朽迷思而成功的作品们。 The same is true of the moral sphere. Knowledge of morality, its history and its ‘values’ is expanding. Like discourse on aesthetics, discourse on morality and its ‘values’ is becoming increasingly facile. Ethics is the loser, and it will never be possible to extrapolate a practical lifestyle from moral knowledge. 正和前文关于美学的讨论类似,伦理道德领域也面临危机,“价值”成为越来越容易做到的东西,而实用的生活准则永远不可能从道德知识上推导出来。 And so the malaise of the everyday and of the ‘privation’ of private life is contaminating the higher spheres of art, ethics, creativity and the understanding between consciousnesses …