# Institutions in a 'Post-technological' Society
1972 MOMA “The Universitas Project”
In January 1972, The Museum of Modern Art hosted "The Universitas Project," a two-day conference sponsored by the Museum's International Council and the Institute for Architecture and Urban Studies. The distinguished participants, including Jean Baudrillard, Umberto Eco, Gyorgy Kepes, Octavio Paz, and Meyer Schapiro, engaged in a multidisciplinary debate on the future of design and design institutions in the postindustrial era.
The Universitas Project Emilio Ambasz
"a critical and prospective inquiry into the relation of man to the natural and the sociocultural environment... specifically planned to explore the possibility of establishing in the United States a new type of institution centered around the task of evaluating and designing the man-made milieu."
* The future society will not be an industrial society but an **urban society**.
* The term '**design**' in the American sense is full of meaning and hopes.The designer, a real demi-god(demiurge), would capable of modifying the environment and creat a new space so long as he is supplied with new values.
1. -关于Emilio Ambasz的讨论（工程领导者）
“This semiology was caught in a cross-fire: on the one hand, the realists, including M. Schapiro and the economists, referred to the practical aspects of the construction and constitution of the city; on the other, the leftists and the ultra-leftists who showed that signs and significants inevitably emanated today from the failed and condemned society.”
1. -关于Christopher Alexander的讨论
**‘space, the production of space, and the political economy of space'
'signifier-signified' (Saussure and his school).
the notion of **value** （价值的观念）plays a decisive and specific role even in linguistics: value attaches itself to the polysemy of all words: the relationship signifier-signified, real or reality is not univocal and depends on 'values' which are not simply connotations or elements of a second degree but specific ensembles.
否定历史的批评-一种积极的批评（the modern world is entering a world 'time' that cannot be thought of any longer according to a traditional historicity but in terms of the concept of 'strategy'.）