Part 2 : No.4 - The State and Daily Life - 蔣尚君 國家行政手段以「每天的日常生活」做為基石進行介入干預。 而處於「日常生活中的人-日常生活」這些人,依舊認為制度機構(institutional edifice)在他們自身之上。 -壓制? - 「信徒」更願意相信實際存在的大教堂,卻沒有意識到自身也是可以讓『edifice』憩息即已生長或發展的承載面。 “In daily life, these believers do not realize that they are the soil on which the edifice rests and bears down.”-未曾意識到自身也可以是承載面。 “With all their gestures, words and habits, they preserve and support the edifice. ”-信徒之所以是信徒,源自於他們將自身完整投放進了現有的「edifice」,且從未質疑。 “Only a certain anarchist tradition has corrected it to some extent, but without succeeding in shaking the edifice. Since the belle epoque of militant anarchism, which was coeval with the bourgeois belle epoque, and despite the terrorism that prolongs the anarchist tradition, the edifice has been perfected from year to year, answering the terrorism of its opponents with state terrorism.”-這段不太理解。 - 「稽查-控制」/「police-control」即使隱形於我們的日常生活中,回到第一段中「國家行政手段的基石」中去,這就是一則實例。 此刻需要對「左批判、右批判」建立自身認知。 -不要意味將自己的位置放在「信徒」的層面上? 第二段提及新自由主義: 右派、左派的批判態度的界線差異在變得模糊,被渾殽於混亂之中。 右派於左派之間的界線即便不再清晰,可依舊存在有本質差異性。 “What does the right-wing critique claim? It incriminates the bureaucratic cumbersomeness of the state apparatuses, their clumsy interventions, the enormous cost of these interventions, subventions and support for the various ‘social rejects’, and so on. ”-干預措施 “As for the left-wing critique, it accuses statesmen of striving to reinforce the state, shattering the social by causing it to permeate society in its entirety,being repressive, using information tendentiously - ultimately, of treating the state as an end in itself, not as an instrument in the service of society. This dual indictment, inseparable from other ideological or strategic elements, cannot fail to shake the state at its foundation. ”-批判 - 当代国家有三方面: 「管理和行政 」managerial and administrative安全 - 国家作为监护人。 保证安全「保险和安心」insuring and reassuring。 最后,最重要的「军队和军备」,警察和司法,镇压和压迫。 “For years the state technocracy and techno-structure have long concealed the enormity of the bureaucracy and its arbitrariness under the ideology of competence and performance. Hence the critiques, but also the double-sidedness of those critiques. Hence also the vanishing of joy, pleasure and enjoyment in the clutches of the coldest of cold monsters. ” -同时,保护者和压迫者,经理和仲裁者,专制理性,解放者和独裁者,当代国家正在以最大的一致性的官方话语堆积矛盾。 “ Simultaneously protector and oppressor, manager and arbiter, authoritarian and rational, liberator and identitarian, the contemporary state is piling up contradictions under official discourses of the utmost coherence.” -多年来,国家技术专家和技术结构长期以来在能力和绩效意识形态下隐瞒了官僚主义的严重性和任意性。因此批评,也是这些批评的双重性。因此,在最冷的冷怪物的离合器中,快乐,乐趣和享受也消失了。 - 官方形式主義掩蓋了所有具有特徵性的意志: 政治家們不斷在努力減少任何突出的事物-即特徵、摧毀任何不合“規定”的事物、打擊社會特殊的社會現象-比如毒品。 -因為,社會中缺少、甚至消滅了這些具有不穩定因素的特徵性事物或現象,某一方面上說,這是他們從所謂的根本上在剔除威脅。 “ In fact and in practice, the state apparatuses press towards rupture and fragmentation, a split society - the work of the state, concealed by it - forcibly maintained in the existing political framework.”-分裂的社会 - 国家的工作被它隐藏起来,强制维护现有的政治框架。 - “even obvious, that the critique of everyday lived experience must abandon the immediate, and be reconsidered in accordance with state activity and its enormous organizational capacities? It is not enough to blame capitalism, commodities and money, as well as ‘bourgeois’ society, for being dehumanizing and oppressive. It is no longer sufficient to invoke the transcendence of ‘real life’ or the ‘true life’. It is no longer even necessary to establish the moral, mental or spiritual priority of the surreal, the ideal or the unreal over the real. Appeals to art can prove as disappointing as the appeal to truth against reality. Refutation of the commodity as a world, and of the global as a product of the market, still has a sense. Unfortunately, however, this sense also implies the non-sense of the refutation. For the essential thing today is the state, which increasingly elevates itself above its own conditions in the world of commodities ” -從國家的活動於巨大的組織能力出發,重新考慮歷史經驗的「日常生活」。 將資本主義、商品、金錢以及資產階級社會再歸咎於非人性化的壓迫還不夠。 甚至,對藝術的呼籲其實就是對現實呼籲的真相,是讓人失望的。 即便是微弱的日常生活,也是於國家的偉大權力有直接連繫的。 - “ Today, the state manages daily life directly or indirectly. Directly, through regulations and laws, more numerous prohibitions, and the tutelary action of institutions and administrations. Indirectly, through taxation, the apparatus of justice, steering the media, and so on. ” 曾經我們會劃分「什麼是禁止的、什麼是允許的」,當下國家不再滿足於「機率懲罰」-除掉無用、除掉異常。 我們所擁有的國家是一個控制日常生活的國家,因為這樣的方式有助於建造或創造它的模型。 - “While it is true that the state dispenses only with what is insignificant, it is nevertheless the case that the politico-bureaucratic-state edifice always contains cracks, chinks, spaces. On the one hand, administrative activity strains to plug these gaps, leaving less and less hope and possibility of what has been dubbed interstitial freedom. On the other hand, individuals seek to enlarge these cracks and pass through the interstices.” -國家放棄了不重要的事情,可政治機制建構(the politico-bureaucratic-state edifice)總是有裂縫的,也就是空間。 ** 一方面行政活動在不斷想方設法消除裂縫;另一邊的個人則尋求方式去擴大裂縫中的空間。** - “ since the advent of so-called multinational firms, state management of the economic and the social has altered. It may be that what is called the national state will become the manager of outmoded national territories and relations of production for global enterprises. Some important decisions are taken at the level of the state - that is to say, at the national and global level, but outside of state institutions. ” 「跨國公司」的出現,國家隊經濟、社會的管理即發生了改變-所謂的國家成為了全球企業中的 “過去的領土於生產關係的中間人”。-空間? 所謂的戰略一致性、民族團結、實質上的共識,這都是過去的生產方式邏輯;當下已經無法避免不可預測的創新於發展了。 這個功能就加強了「日常生活的管理 the administration of daily life 」。 - “If we let things take their course, this pessimistic science-fiction scenario will gradually become our familiar landscape, because it is convenient to have a technical device at home that seems to take the whole of everyday life in hand. One day it may well be that, sparing the unforeseen or some initiative, an army of bureaucrats, under the orders of a technico-political high command, will treat daily life not as an object or product, no longer as a semi-colony, but quite simply as a conquered country.” -設想這個悲觀的科幻場景慢慢進入到我們的生活中:家裡的一個技術裝置就幾乎佔了所有的日常生活。 不去設想那些不可預測的意外的行動官僚軍隊,也將可能侵佔日常生活。不單單將日常生活再看作是一個「半殖民地的對象或半殖民地的產品」,而只是簡單的作為了一個「被政府的國家」。