description: A curated reader on Ethereum 2.0 technology
# Ethereum 2.0 Info
Canonical link: https://eth2.info
Here are what I consider to be quality sources of information for those wanting to build a strong understanding of Ethereum 2.0. Technical depth increases as you work down the page.
Things have evolved rapidly over the last year, and information may have become out of date. I've noted freshness dates for most things: the older they are the more cautious one ought to be. For the freshest week-by-week updates, see [What's new in Eth2](https://eth2.news).
This list is not aiming to be comprehensive: kind of the opposite; I'm aiming to cut down on the noise. If you have a resource you feel should be added, send me a note at `email@example.com` and I'll consider it. But no promises.
_Note that the [Ethereum 2.0 Devs Handbook and FAQs](https://notes.ethereum.org/@serenity/handbook) has had a major refresh after lying fallow for a while. It covers much the same ground, so take a look at that as well._
A good place to start is this super-accessible but not dumbed down [article from bitrates](https://www.bitrates.com/news/p/examining-ethereum-20-this-is-not-your-grannys-blockchain) (August 2019).
Next up, some of my own articles 😂 These are not very technical and give an overview of history and progress for the more general audience.
- [Ethereum 2.0 introduction](https://media.consensys.net/state-of-ethereum-protocol-1-d3211dd0f6) (August 2018)
- [The Beacon Chain](https://media.consensys.net/state-of-ethereum-protocol-2-the-beacon-chain-c6b6a9a69129) (October 2018)
- [Exploring Ethereum 2.0 Design Goals](https://media.consensys.net/exploring-the-ethereum-2-0-design-goals-fd2d901b4c01) (January 2019)
- [Welcome to the Bazaar](https://media.consensys.net/ethereum-2-0s-latest-strides-forward-13f63652e57d) (July 2019)
- [Interoperability Workshop Review](https://media.consensys.net/how-30-eth-2-0-devs-locked-themselves-in-to-achieve-interoperability-175e4a807d92) (September 2019)
A helpful [glossary of Eth2 terms](https://medium.com/alethio/ethereum-2-0-terms-demystified-8398357429d7) from Alexandru Tudorache (August 2019)
EthHub has a nicely structured [overview of Ethereum 2.0](https://docs.ethhub.io/ethereum-roadmap/ethereum-2.0/sharding/) (July 2019) <!-- https://github.com/ethhub-io/ethhub/tree/master/docs/ethereum-roadmap/ethereum-2.0 -->
Colin Schwartz of Chainsafe is working on a "complete guide" to Ethereum 2.0:
- [Ethereum 2.0: A Complete Guide](https://medium.com/chainsafe-systems/ethereum-2-0-a-complete-guide-d46d8ac914ce) (June 2019)
- [Scaling, Part One](https://medium.com/chainsafe-systems/ethereum-2-0-a-complete-guide-3739a74be61a) (June 2019)
- [Scaling Ethereum — Part Two: Sharding](https://medium.com/chainsafe-systems/ethereum-2-0-a-complete-guide-scaling-ethereum-part-two-sharding-902370ac3be) (July 2019)
- [Casper and the Beacon Chain](https://medium.com/chainsafe-systems/ethereum-2-0-a-complete-guide-casper-and-the-beacon-chain-be95129fc6c1) (August 2019)
Equally, Status is building a "Two Point Oh" [series](https://our.status.im/tag/two-point-oh/):
- [Explaining Validators](https://our.status.im/two-point-oh-explaining-validators/) (November 2018)
- [The Beacon Chain](https://our.status.im/two-point-oh-the-beacon-chain/) (November 2018)
- [The Tale of Two Ethers](https://our.status.im/two-point-oh-the-tale-of-two-ethers/) (November 2018)
- [Randomness](https://our.status.im/two-point-oh-randomness/) (May 2019)
- [9 Things You Didn't Know About Ethereum 2.0](https://our.status.im/9-things-you-didnt-know-about-ethereum-2-0/) (July 2019)
- [Justification and Finalization](https://our.status.im/two-point-oh-justification-and-finalization/) (August 2019)
My top picks for listening and watching:
- [Vitalik at Deconomy](https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=izzMuxD4OAM) (May 2019)
- Hsiao-Wei Wang's "Life of An Ethereum Beacon Chain Validator": [video](https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=P4loHGCplX4), beautiful [slides](https://docs.google.com/presentation/d/1JlQ8fVZUvt7ywRcI7mj1ExmPxcNII2xKT4lkgnkq7gU/edit#slide=id.g52948b393d_2_75) (April 2019)
- Danny Ryan's [ZeroKnowledge podcast](https://www.zeroknowledge.fm/66) (February 2019)
- Justin Drake's [Epicenter podcast](https://epicenter.tv/episode/263/) (November 2018) This is well worth 70 minutes of your listening time. There's also a transcript there
- Robert Drost summarises Eth2 Phase 2 design: [video](https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gHWMEmM940o), [slides](https://drive.google.com/file/d/1ufvspealOGje6GPp-yJnCeO73bch1wRe/edit) (July 2019)
If you want a single-article overview from a technical point of view, James Prestwich's [What to Expect When ETH’s Expecting](https://hackernoon.com/what-to-expect-when-eths-expecting-80cb4951afcd) (January 2019) hits the high points.
The [Sharding FAQ](https://github.com/ethereum/wiki/wiki/Sharding-FAQ) (April 2019) and the [Proof of Stake FAQ](https://github.com/ethereum/wiki/wiki/Proof-of-Stake-FAQ) (August 2019) remain excellent resources on the key innovations of Ethereum 2.0 vs 1.0. They are great places to learn the key concepts and terminology.
- Justin Drake's [Whiteboard session](https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S262StTwkmo) (February 2019) with NEAR protocol
- Vitalik on [The Phase 2 Design Space](https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RW7K3JQOZOg&t=2089) (June 2019) (It's 40 minutes, but keep watching for more good stuff that follows.)
The [specification repo](https://github.com/ethereum/eth2.0-specs) is the canonical source of information. But the specs themselves are dense, and not yet completely complete.
The following articles help to get under the skin of the spec to understand what's really going on:
- [Serenity Design Rationale](https://notes.ethereum.org/9l707paQQEeI-GPzVK02lA?view#) (August 2019) How Vitalik sees things.
- [Phase 0 for Humans](https://notes.ethereum.org/jDcuUp3-T8CeFTv0YpAsHw?view) (August 2019) This provides a more narrative complement to the explanation-lite [Phase 0 spec](https://github.com/ethereum/eth2.0-specs/blob/master/specs/core/0_beacon-chain.md).
- [Phase 0 -- Honest Validator](https://github.com/ethereum/eth2.0-specs/blob/dev/specs/validator/0_beacon-chain-validator.md) (July 2019) One of the best ways to understand the spec is to understand how validators are expected to behave.
- [BLS Signature aggregation](https://ethresear.ch/t/pragmatic-signature-aggregation-with-bls/2105) (May 2018)
- Herman Junge's [BLS for busy people](https://gist.github.com/hermanjunge/3308fbd3627033fc8d8ca0dd50809844)
- The [Design Decision Rationale](https://github.com/ethereum/eth2.0-specs/blob/dev/specs/networking/p2p-interface.md#design-decision-rationale) in the networking specification is insightful reading.
- Proof of custody: Dmitry Khovratovich audited the original proof of custody design for Phase 1. He proposes an [updated construction](https://github.com/ethereum/eth2.0-specs/files/3551615/legendre_proof_of_custody_uhf.pdf) (August 2019), which has a nice introduction to the problem. The [audit report](https://github.com/ethereum/eth2.0-specs/files/3537084/Legendre.7.pdf) is insightful.
- [Eth2 Phase 2 WIKI](https://hackmd.io/UzysWse1Th240HELswKqVA) (August 2019)
_[Missing: LMD GHOST]_
Visual thinkers will appreciate [Protolambda's diagrams](https://github.com/protolambda/eth2-docs) (July 2019)
If you really want to go down the rabbit hole, then the entrance can be found at the [Ethereum Sharding Research Compendium](https://notes.ethereum.org/s/H1PGqDhpm) (April 2019). Explore all that and you will know as much about Ethereum 2.0 as anyone on the planet.
## Research background
- [Casper FFG paper](https://arxiv.org/pdf/1710.09437.pdf) (January 2019)
- [BLS Signature Aggregation](http://crypto.stanford.edu/~dabo/papers/aggreg.pdf) (2003)