# Working Conditions of Electric Vehicle Factory Workers -- Report from 3 Factories in Guangdong Province ![](https://hackmd.io/_uploads/Bk8YXiXa3.png) *Image 1: Exterior of one of the factories involved in this research. Taken by researcher.* ## I. Background Compared with traditional vehicles which predominantly rely on fossil fuel, electric vehicles[^1] can reduce carbon emissions, alleviate air pollution, and reduce countries' dependence on imported oil. According to the International Energy Agency’s "Global Electric Vehicle Outlook Report 2023"[^2] , the supply chain of electric vehicles has been expanding, while the manufacturing of EV is highly concentrated in certain countries and regions. China is a major player in the industry. Despite the impact of the pandemic on the world economy, the global EV industry has been growing rapidly, with manufacturing and sales of electric vehicles continuing to increase. In terms of both EV manufacturing and sales, China has gradually become a world leader in recent years. According to media reports, in 2022, China's electric vehicle sales accounted for 59% of the global market. At the same time, China has also become the world's largest production base of electric vehicles, accounting for 64% of the global market[^3]. These grand figures, however, do not tell the story of workers. Traditional car industry relies on a large labor force. Does the manufacture and production of EV still require that? This year, Tesla, one of the best-selling EV brands in the world, launched the “New Giga Lab” in China, demonstrating how one Tesla can be assembled in 45 seconds[^4] under a highly automated process. What role do workers play in the EV production process? Can automation reduce the working pressure on workers? Or does it further increase the exploitation of workers? ## II. Research Topic The purpose of this survey is to investigate the working conditions of some electric vehicle manufacturing factory workers in the Pearl River Delta region. The main questions of the survey are: (1) the working conditions of EV workers before and after the pandemic; (2) the impact of automation on employment; (3) occupational safety and health; (4) labor disputes. ## III. Research Method The survey was conducted in the Pearl River Delta region of Guangdong Province. It targeted workers in different workshops and positions of Factory A, B, and C that manufactured Battery electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles. The survey method was interviews with workers. The survey period was from March to June 2023, and 46 workers were being interviewed. ## IV. Research Results ### (1) Background of the 3 Factories #### Factory A Factory A was established in 2017. It was located in a region I[^5] of Guangdong Province. Factory A was the first Chinese-owned factory exclusively producing BEVs, and its brand is positioned as a line of "high-end smart electric vehicle". Currently, there were about 1,500-2,000 workers in Factory A. Factory A was located in a new electric vehicle industrial park and the workers' living area (urban village) was far away from the factory (more than 3 km). #### Factory B Factory B was established in 2015 and was located in region III. Factory B mainly produced middle-end BEVs and HEVs, with about 3,000-4,000 employees. The supporting facilities in the factory area were relatively comprehensive, with dormitories, canteens, leisure areas, clinics, and entertainment rooms. Workers' living areas were not that far from the factory. #### Factory C Factory C was established in 2006 and was located in region I. It was known as the "leader of China's new energy vehicles" and mainly produced BEVs and HEVs. The factory covered a large area, with dormitories and canteens. Workers' living areas were not far from the factory either. There were about 10,000 workers in Factory C. ### (2) Basic Information ![](https://hackmd.io/_uploads/ryJqJn7ah.png) *Chart 1: Number of Respondents by Gender* ![](https://hackmd.io/_uploads/SkAM-hQpn.png) *Chart 2: Number of Respondents by Age Group* ![](https://hackmd.io/_uploads/BkgbG3Xp2.png) *Chart 3: Number of Respondents by Employment Status* According to field observation and the data in the table, frontline workers in Factory A, B, and C were mostly male. Workers under 40 accounted for a large proportion of the workforce. There were both formal and informal employed workers in Factory A. Student workers and hourly workers were hired as informal workers. They did not have social security and labour contracts. Dispatched workers in Factory A had social security through dispatch agencies and signed labour contracts with them. Formal workers had social security through the factory and signed labour contracts with the factory management. The factory set a quota for the number of formal workers. Informal workers seeking to become formal ones needed to wait until there is a vacancy. | Interviewee Number (Factory A)| Interview Response| | -------- | -------- | | Interviewee 1 (an intern) | The school arranges for students to intern at Factory A for half a year before they can graduate. During the internship period, there is no social security and no labor contract is signed. | |Interviewee 2 (an hourly worker)|After working for a month, hourly workers can become dispatched workers and the dispatching company would purchase social security for them. They also sign a contract with the dispatch agency.| |Interviewee 11 (a permanent worker)|Recruited into the factory through a labour dispatch agency two years ago and became a permanent worker after working for half a year at Factory A.| |Interviewee 12 (a permanent worker)|Recruited into the factory through a labour dispatch agency in 2021 and became a permanent worker after working for 3 months. | *Table 1: Interviewee Response on Employment Status in Factory A* Workers in Factory B and C were all formal employees. Interviewees 24, 26, 27 were formal employees of Factory B, and Interviewee 41 was a formal employee of Factory C, stating: "Employees signed labour contracts upon entry and got social security after one month of work." ### (3) Working Conditions Before and After the Pandemic During the pandemic, the pandemic prevention and control in Factory A was very strict, and workers' freedom of mobility was restricted to ensure production went smoothly. The working conditions of workers did not change much before and after the pandemic. |Interviewee Number (Factory A)|Interview Response| |----|----| |Interviewee 3 (worked in a managerial position)|Factory A operated normally and the pandemic did not affect production. Most overtime work is done from April to October each year. Double pay is given in June, July and at the end of the year. The condition had not changed much before and after the pandemic.| |Interviewee 4 (joined factory A through campus recruitment)|Overtime work was also done normally during the pandemic period.| |Interviewee 8 (a truck driver of Factory A)|The factory had a closed-loop system. When vehicles entered the factory, drivers were not allowed to contact the people within.| |Interviewee 10 (a temporary worker)|During the pandemic period, work and commute were strictly regulated. If the worker was found to be positive with COVID, the employee would be punished publicly. | *Table 2: Interviewee responses on working conditions before and after the pandemic in Factory A* For factory B, there was a short period of off-season during the initial stage of the pandemic in 2020 but there was no pandemic-related shutdown. In 2022 the automobile production in Factory B increased and the factory employed additional temporary workers and there were some vocational school student workers working in Factory B as well. In the first quarter of 2023, compared with the pandemic period, production decreased and workers' overtime hours and income decreased accordingly. | Interviewee Number (Factory B)| Interview Response| | -------- | -------- | | Interviewee 17 (working in plastic workshop) | In 2022, I worked 28-29 days a month, 10 hours a day. The current salary is about RMB1500 less per month than in 2022. | |Interviewee 22|Compared to 2022, the current monthly salary is RMB1000-2000 less.| |Interviewee 24|I started working at Factory B in the second half of 2022. At that time, I often worked overtime and sometimes worked 11 hours on weekends. The salary was higher than the current one. The factory hired a large number of temporary workers to meet the shipment deadline.| |Interviewee 25 (a stamping worker)|Overall overtime at Factory B is reduced after the Chinese New Year this year and the monthly salary also decreases by more than RMB1000. The salary was higher during the pandemic.| |Interviewee 27|The salary during the pandemic was higher than now. I was busy all year last year when the factory hired many temporary workers.| *Table 3: Interviewee responses on working conditions before and after the pandemic in Factory B* After the pandemic control was relaxed at the end of 2022, if a worker in Factory C was infected with COVID-19, they could take sick leave. However, the sick leave pay of workers was not fully paid. Compared with the pandemic period, workers' working hours decreased and income decreased accordingly in the first quarter of 2023. At the end of April 2023 workers' workload gradually increased. | Interviewee Number (Factory C) | Interview Response | | -------- | -------- | | Interviewee 27 (a fitter) | During the pandemic, I earned up to RMB 10,000 per month. Now it was the off-season for production and my salary was less than half of what it used to be. When the pandemic control was lifted, the factory required employees to have a positive nucleic acid test result to take sick leave and promised to pay sick leave pay, but after taking sick leave, I found that the sick leave pay was only partially remunerated. | |Interviewee 28 (working in battery production workshop)|We worked more overtime last year with only two days off per month.| |Interviewee 29 (Workshop Producing Car Parts)|The current workload is small. It is off-season.| |Interviewee 32 (working in welding position)|When I joined the factory in 2021, the factory had a larger workload and more employees. The longest working hours were more than 12 hours a day. Currently it is off-season and salary is lower than during the pandemic period.| |Interviewee 41 (working in final assembly workshop)|Overtime has gradually increased since the end of April this year but it is not as high as the workload in 2022. There was basically no rest in 2022 and we had to work on weekends. Some months we worked continuously without a day off for a whole month.| *Table 4: Interview responses from Factory C interviewees about labour conditions before and after the pandemic.* ![](https://hackmd.io/_uploads/S1nPEo7p2.jpg) *Image 2: Exterior of one of the factories involved in this research. Taken by researcher.* ### (4) The Impact of Automation on Employment The degree of automation was relatively high for automotive production in Factory A but human operation was still indispensable. Fully automated production would not be achieved in the short term. |Interviewee Number (Factory A)|Interview Response| |----|----| |Interviewee 6|Currently automotive production still requires human operation.| |Interviewee 13|The degree of automation would not develop that quickly to completely replace workers. | *Table 5: Responses from Factory A interviewees about automation* Some production lines in Factory B had robots but they still needed human operation. There was currently no fully automated auto-production workshop. Workers were not very concerned about whether production line automation will have an impact on employment. |Interviewee Number (Factory B)|Interview Response| |----|----| |Interviewee 23|The workshop currently operates semi-automatically with human operation. I don't know if machines will completely replace human labour in the future.| |Interviewee 25|The robots in the workshop are unstable and often have malfunctions which require human assistance.| |Interviewee 26|For our sheet metal workshop, all positions except for welding require human operation to ensure product quality and smooth production.| |Interviewee 27|Checking the appearance or quality of products still requires human labour.| *Table 6: Interview responses from Factory B interviewees about automation* In Factory C, the degree of automation varied in different departments and production lines. In workshops that were automated with a higher degree, workers and machines worked together as one. In workshops where the degree of automation was lower, human labor is still an integral part. The degree of automation has not led to any changes in the number of workers. Whether there were more or less hires still depended mostly on production targets. | Interviewee Number (Factory C) | Interview Response | | -------- | -------- | | Interviewee 28 | The workshop I am currently in does not have robots. All operations are performed by workers on the production line. | |Interviewee 29|Workers and machines work together in the workshop and the degree of automation has remained unchanged.| |Interviewee 31|I hear that some workshops (such as those that produce fuel tanks and painting) have a relatively high degree of automation, but human labour is still required to adjust the machines. Many positions in the workshop require human labour and it is impossible for the factory to achieve full automation.| |Interviewee 32|My department is manual-labour-centric. Degree of automation is low in production lines.| |Interviewee 33|95% of the production line requires human labour and robotic operations are rare. The number of employees depends on the production target. When we have to produce more, there are more workers hired; and when the target is low, there are fewer.| |Interviewee 37|The human to machine operations in the workshop is half and half and the degree of automation has remained unchanged. The number of workers in the workshop depends on the production target.| |Interviewee 39|I am a welder and welding is mainly done by machines, but people are still required to weld parts that machines cannot deal with, such as defects in the corners.| |Interviewee 41|This factory has been around for more than a decade. Some production lines are relatively old and have not been replaced, so production depends mainly on manual labour, with little robotic operation.| *Table 7: Interview responses from Factory C interviewees about automation* ### (5) Occupational Safety and Health Workers at Factory A were required to have a physical examination when they joined and left the company. Factory provided protective gears such as masks, earplugs, and safety shoes. There were rules for safe operation in the workshop. | Interviewee Number (Factory C) | Interview Response | | -------- | -------- | | Interviewee 7 | There are occupational health checkups for joining and leaving the company. Free PPEs (Personal protective equipments) are provided. | |Interviewee 12|There are occupational health checkups and there are operation guidelines. Masks, earplugs, gloves, and safety shoes are provided free of charge.| *Table 8: Interview responses from Factory A interviewees about occupational safety and health* Interviewees said that common occupational diseases in Factory B include hearing loss and respiratory system problems. The frequency of physical examinations varied among workers in different positions. Some workers had physical examinations every six months while others never had a physical examination since joining the company. If workers were diagnosed with occupational diseases during the physical examination, they would be transferred away from their original positions, but the factory would not provide further care for their subsequent health problems. In addition, Factory B did not pay enough attention to occupational safety and health issues, and protective gears such as masks, earplugs, gloves, protective face shields, and safety shoes were not distributed regularly. It was difficult for workers who actually needed those gears to obtain them. After joining the company, workers would receive pre-job training. The content of training varied depending on the workshop they were in. While there were rules for safe operation in place and training on the hazards of toxic and harmful chemicals, if workers needed to meet production targets, they could not really afford to follow those rules, which made work-related injuries and occupational diseases more likely. Workers were required to have a physical examination when they joined the company and the cost was borne by themselves. However, there was no physical examination when workers left the company. | Interviewee Number (Factory B)| Interview Response | | -------- | -------- | | Interviewee 16 | It is impossible to operate according to the operating guidelines, otherwise the production target cannot be met. Some of the products we produce are very dirty with an oily layer, but PPEs are only distributed every few days. There are some workers who have failed the physical examination and they are later transferred to other positions. There is no further news about their health conditions though. | |Interviewee 18|It takes a long time for our work gloves to be distributed.| |Interviewee 19|Physical examinations are required when joining the company and workers need to pay for the check-up. It seems that this factory does not pay enough attention to safety training. After joining the company, we only receive one day of training. We only find out about the toxicity of alcohol, acetone, and white oil used on the production line when we are actually on the job, but the training does not cover these issues. We need to save up PPEs because they are difficult to get from the factory.| |Interviewee 20 (worker who had work-related injury)|I couldn't meet the production targets by following their instructions. I operated a small punching machine but there were safety hazards with the machine itself, and I was injured while not following the operating guidelines. My fingernail was crushed and it was very painful. I was scolded by the supervisor. I didn't go to the hospital after the injury. I rested for a few days and was called back to work in the workshop. The factory did not report the work-related injury and I did not know how to apply for compensation.| |Interviewee 21|Physical examinations in our workshop are conducted every six months. I hear that some colleagues in the workshop had hearing loss and were later transferred to other departments, but I don't know what happened to them afterwards. It is difficult to obtain PPEs and some colleagues need to apply for safety shoes two months in advance.| *Table 9: Interview responses from Factory B interviewees about occupational safety and health* The types of occupational diseases at Factory C mainly involved hearing and vision impairment, as well as respiratory diseases. Depending on the job and workshop, workers were affected differently by work-related injuries or occupational diseases. In some departments, such as those producing car chassis, workers needed to wear protective shoes during operation. For some positions, such as welding and painting, workers needed regular physical examinations and also needed to wear protective equipment. If employees were diagnosed with an occupational disease, it would be difficult for them to be treated fairly. The factory's induction training was not standardized, with some workers receiving 2, 3, or 7 days of pre-job training, while others started working without any training. Workers at Factory C were required to undergo a physical examination before employment, for which they must pay themselves and there was no physical examination upon resignation. | Interviewee number (Factory C) | Interview response | | -------- | -------- | | Interviewee 28 (workshop producing batteries) | When I work, I need to wear a mask and gloves. A physical examination is required before entering the factory, but I have not been examined since then and no physical examination is done upon resignation. There was a 7-day pre-job training, which covered operation safety and injury prevention. The workshop has signs signalling dangerous items. | | Interviewee 29 | There are safety operation regulations and standards in the workshop and these are relatively formal. Before employment, there is a health examination, for which workers must pay themselves. There is no physical examination after that, and no physical examination is required upon resignation. There is a 3-day pre-job training, after which workers start working. I heard that some positions, such as painting, can cause greater harm to health, and physical examinations are required every year. | | Interviewee 30 | A physical examination is required before employment, and an annual physical examination is arranged afterwards. No physical examination is required upon resignation. There was no pre-job training before starting work. Workers in the workshop producing car bodies are exposed to high noise levels, which can easily cause hearing loss. Workers in the workshop have suffered hearing loss but the factory avoids dealing with it. Management would deny those workers overtime work and thus paying them the basic wage only. This is indirectly forcing the workers to quit and as a result factory management don’t need to deal with them. | | Interviewee 32 | A physical examination is required when employed, and there is a 2-day training covering factory rules and regulations. I work in welding, which involves light radiation and I have a physical examination every year. If I do not pass the examination, I will be transferred to another position. No physical examination is required upon resignation. | | Interviewee 33 | Pre-job training teaches the workers how to operate the machinery and training only lasts half a day before starting work. All workers in the workshop have a physical examination every year and there is no occupational health examination upon resignation. I don't know if any of my colleagues around me have had occupational diseases through physical examinations, because if a worker gets sick, the factory will keep it confidential. There are signs to stay away from dangerous chemicals in the workshop, as well as safety operation guidance. | | Respondent 39 | Welding is a technical job with a higher basic salary, but sparks and dust splashed during the operation can harm the eyes and lungs. During operation, I need to wear a face shield, goggles, mask, gloves, and earplugs. I once accidentally saw the sparks from the welding next to me and my eyes hurt for a day. | | Respondent 42 (workshop producing car chassis) | Protective shoes are required for producing chassis to prevent feet from being injured by heavy objects. Protective shoes are heavy, but you get used to them after wearing them for a long time. There was a 7-day training before employment, covering injury prevention and other topics. | | Respondent 46 | Protective shoes are required during operation, although heavy, they are comfortable once you get used to them. | *Table 10: Interview responses from Factory C respondents on occupational health and safety* ## V. Analysis and Discussion **1:** The working conditions of workers does not change significantly during the pandemic, and the length of their working hours are directly related to the production target (and sales) of automobiles. Factories’ power in setting hiring terms still prevails, while workers’ bargaining power remains very limited. Regardless of industries, and regardless of the supporting policies from local governments, frontline workers still face problems such as overtime work, non-regular employment, and opaque wage calculation. Factory A provided formal employees with a modest monthly income in addition to year-end bonuses, and was able to ensure production during the off-season in this way. Informal Short-term labour was hired during the peak season. Workers at Factory B and Factory C could only achieve high income by working excessively long hours, sometimes working for a whole month or even a year without rest. However, wage calculation was opaque and non-uniform, and wage calculation standards were firmly controlled by the factory. | Factory | Interviewee number | Interview response | | --------- | ------------------ | ------------------ | | A | Interviewee 12 | Income is mainly made up of annual bonuses; monthly wages are low. | | B | Interviewee 16 | Performance and assessment awards are given more to those who are favored by leaders, and workers can only roughly calculate how much their wages are. | | B | Interviewee 25 | I hear that last year they (colleagues in this department) often worked overtime, and even if the other shift came, we could still work overtime because only by working more overtime can we earn more money. | | B | Interviewee 26 | Our workshop usually works on weekends, with a lot of overtime work, but there is a lot of pressure and leaders hold meetings every day to push for quality. | | C | Interviewee 29 | Wages are calculated based on basic salary plus piece rate, but the specific calculation standard is unclear. | | C | Interviewee 31 | My wages are calculated based on half piece rate and half hourly rate, and the factory stipulates that there are no overtime bonuses for us, so even if I work overtime on weekends, I do not receive the legally mandated double pay. | | C | Interviewee 33 | My wage calculation method is half piece-rate and half hourly-rate and I cannot understand how it is calculated. The wage composition is mainly basic salary, performance bonuses, and overtime. Performance bonus is determined by your relationship with leaders. If the relationship with leaders is good or the leader is in a good mood, they will give you more performance pay. | | C | Interviewee 37 | I only know the final number of my wage on the monthly salary slip. The calculation process is completely unknown, making it impossible to understand the wage calculation method. | | C | Interviewee 41 | Slightly higher wages can only be earned by working hard overtime, and basic salary has not changed much for several years. No matter how many years you work, you never receive any holiday bonus. There are not many subsidies or benefits and there is no year-end bonus or anything like that. | | C | Interviewee 45 | All wages can only be earned by working hard overtime, and there is no other way to earn more wages except working overtime. | *Table 11: Interview responses from Factory A, Factory B, and Factory C response on wages and working hours* **2:** It will take a long time to make workers obsolete for production in all of the factories. Even if some workshops or job positions have achieved automation, the working hours and pressure of automobile workers have not been reduced due to the limitation in technology. Workers still need to rely on excessive overtime to earn high incomes. The low cost of labor and the flexibility of human resources make manual work still have advantages over robotic work. However, workers' desire to achieve decent work and a life of dignity remains a luxury. **3:** On the surface, Factory A, Factory B, and Factory C have taken some preventive measures for the occupational health and safety of workers, such as workshop safety operation guidance and pre-job training. However, there are still significant occupational health and safety hazards at Factory B and Factory C. For example, Factory B does not distribute PPEs adequately, and both Factory B and Factory C do not provide occupational health examinations for employees leaving their positions, which clearly violates the provisions of the "Chinese Occupational Disease Prevention and Control Law". **4:** Labour disputes are mostly not settled fairly and workers don't have much recourse. Workers' incentive to fight for their rights is also weak. From the interviews, it can be learned that even workers with work-related injuries or occupational diseases rarely fight for compensation through legal means. If an employee of Factory B or C is diagnosed with an occupational disease, the factory will transfer them away from their original position. As a result their colleagues would know very little about the affected worker, weakening the impulse to fight for their rights. Workers generally feel that the cost of safeguarding their rights is too high, and resignation is the most direct way to express their dissatisfaction. | Factory | Interviewee Number | Interview Response | | -------- | -------- | -------- | | B | Interviewee 17 | The factory always has the upper hand. | | B | Interviewee 20 | I dare not fight for my rights. Even if I fight for them, I may get scolded. The factory has a legal team, and fighting for my rights may make things worse than they are now. | | B | Interviewee 24 | I don't have any experience in fighting for my rights. | | B | Interviewee 25 | If there is a minor conflict, I won't complain or report it to the labour bureau because I don't want to worsen my relationship with the management. | | B | Interviewee 26 | | | C | Interviewee 31| If I have conflicts with management or encounter difficulties at work, I won't complain because I think it's useless. If I don't like the factory, I'll just quit and find another one. | *Table 12: Interview responses of respondents from Factory B and Factory C regarding labour disputes* ## VI. Conclusion From this survey, it can be seen that although the idea of "fully automated production" has been around for a long time, the three automobile factories surveyed are still labour-intensive to an extent. Workers play an irreplaceable role in the process of automobile manufacturing. However, even though the production of electric vehicles relies heavily on labour, the working conditions in the electric vehicle industry still raise concerns. The daily long working hours, inadequate safety and health measures, and the lack of safe recourse for labor to settle their disputes with management all put workers in a weak position in protecting their own rights and interests. The bargaining power of workers in the labour market and within the workplace is very weak. In the future, how can the working conditions of workers be improved? Is it possible to enhance workers' awareness of safeguarding their rights? These questions are absolutely worth pondering given the growing importance of the EV industry in the future.  ## Appendix Appendix I: Minimum wage of Guangdong Province and the region system | Category | minimum wage per month(RMB/month) | minimum hourly rate for non-full-time workers (RMB) | Regions | | -------- | --------------------------------- | --------------------------------------------------- | --- | | I | 2,300 (Guangzhou), 2,360 (Shenzhen) | 22.2 | Guangzhou, Shenzhen | | II | 1,900 | 18.1 | Zhuhai, Foshan, Dongguan, Zhongshan | | III | 1,720 | 17.0 | Shantou, Huizhou, Jiangmen, Zhanjiang, Zhaoqing | | IV | 1,620 | 16.1 | Shaoguan, Heyuan, Meizhou, Shanwei, Yangjiang, Maoming, Qingyuan, Chaozhou, Jieyang, Yunfu | [^1]: New electric vehicles (NEVs), a term used by the Chinese Government, mainly include battery electric vehicles (BEVs), hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), and fuel cell electric vehicles. Check out the wikipedia entry [‘Plug-in electric vehicles in China’](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plug-in_electric_vehicles_in_China) For convenience, we would refer to all of the above under the category Electric Vehicles (EV) in this report. [^2]: https://www.iea.org/reports/global-ev-outlook-2023 [^3]: https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2023/05/electric-vehicles-ev-sales-growth-2022/ [^4]: https://www.republicworld.com/technology-news/other-tech-news/tesla-unveils-giga-lab-in-china-which-can-build-cars-in-45-seconds-articleshow.html [^5]: According to the different minimum wage standards, Guangdong Province divides different areas and cities into Category I, II, III and IV regions. In 2021, the minimum wage of region I is 2,300 yuan/month (Guangzhou), 2,360 yuan/month (Shenzhen); The minimum wage of region II 1,900 yuan/month; the minimum wage of region III is 1,720 yuan/month; the minimum wage of region IV is 1,620 yuan/month. http://www.gd.gov.cn/zwgk/wjk/qbwj/yfh/content/post_3678378.html