# ACDC Use Cases
## Supply Chain
Supply chain refers to overall concept behind the flow of any type of goods and services. It involves the movement and storage of raw materials, of work-in-process inventory, and of finished goods as well as end to end order fulfilment from point of origin to point of consumption.
Below simple example of generic supply chain:
Benefits of supply chain:
* Manage demand
* Carry the right amount of inventory
* Deal with disruptions
* Keep costs to a minimum and meets customer demand in the most effective way possible
* Feedback loop on every step of the chain
The use case described below is about specific instance of such supply chain - vaccine supply chain. Overall concept can be applied to any type of supply chain e.g. food or and flow of goods including digital assets.
For purpose of ACDC we extend specific supply chain which does not end on the end customer but goes beyond that and provide possibility to create feedback loop back to the producer or involve third parties who are interested in the flow of goods (e.g. consumer protection organizations, WHO etc.)
### Vaccine Supply chain
Vaccine supply chain is highly regulated supply chain and requires involvement of multiple entities not always connected each other.
One of the challenging aspects of the supply chain is the authentic data exchange and authorization to use the data by involved parties.
Below the example schema of such supply chain and their parties.
During each step within the supply chain entities needs to deal with:
- verify origin of the goods
- verify previous holder
- verify authenticity of the attached data
- audit the history (the path how the goods get here, who was involved, trough which countries it went etc.)
- authorization to handle the process, including delegation of sub-process to sub-contractors
- each legal entity would have vLEI
- Raw material supplier (RMS) issue digital confirmation about origin of the raw materials, including all necessary details information how the materials were acquired, fair trade, labour quality etc. Composition of all objects (Container) could generate unique identifier which could be serve as DRI (Decentralized Resource Identifier) for digital representation of the content. In addition the container could be audited by third parties who could provide certificate about data compliance.
- Provide machine readable semantic of the data linked to the container
- verify link between data, semantic and signatures of vLEI
- Logistic company pick up the goods to deliver it to the Product Manufacture. RMS provide the "Container" with necessary data about the raw materials and issue authorization to the logistic company for transporting purposes.
- Product Manufacture receive the shipment and verifies the data container if it comes from RMS vLEI and verify signatures of the auditor.
- Vaccine Manufacture create vaccine out of the raw materials and generate new data container which could include:
- raw materials container (link to the DRI), can be multiple different suppliers/containers,
- information about production conditions and norms
- product information, including leaflet
- Vaccine Manufacture pass the container with the product to the Medicine approval institution (e.g. FDA) who verify all the information and stamp the container with their approval.
- With FDA approval Vaccine Manufacture send the the product with the container to the Packaging and Labeling services where they would verify the data container and use the data from the container to start print outs (in the future this can be push further in the chain and print when needed by customer).
- When packaging is ready it is pass to the Logistic company which gets authorization to distribute that product into specific region (e.g. only in Germany).
- In between warehousing services are involved which they are interested only to identify the batch for tracking purposes (DRI of the container could be used).
- Customer receive given batch can verify the origin and all data related with the specific vaccine including raw materials and whole journey of the package.
- Customer distribute the batch to multiple clinics within region. Means each of that clinic would receive new data container which is linked back to the original batch data container including all necessary information.
- Clinic would apply vaccine to specific patient and provide prove in a form of data container which include injection details (e.g. by who, when, dose etc) and linking mechanism back to the original data container about the vaccine, so the patient would know which batch he received and from where this came.
- Customer knowing all necessary information can report back to Customer side effects and overall health condition. This should be possible via linking mechanism which user posses about which vaccine he got.
- Customer can use that information to collect anonymize information about specific vaccine and report back to the health organization or directly to government about current situation.
## Global ID
IDnum's mission is to offer every individual an ID that cannot be taken away or switched off by anyone. Our global decentralized ID number provides full control of how you represent yourself in a digital world while having complete legal security from the first click.
IDnum utilizes its access to a unique non-country specific Universal Personal Telecommunications dialing code (+878.10 with a capacity of 10 billion 15-digit mobile phone numbers) to integrate its decentralized ID (DID) with mobile phone connectivity and provide individuals with immutable lifetime ownership of trusted and verifiable DIDs which are:
Addressable across the global communications network
Interoperable within self sovereign identity (SSI) credential verification systems
Once an individual is provisioned with an IDnum DID mobile number (e.g. +878. 10.11.22.33.44.55), he or she is able to have full control of their self sovereign identity realm. Using cryptographic self-generating identifiers, the individual can conduct remote transactions from a mobile wallet without a risk of traceability or creating ‘super cookies’.
Idnum DID enables its owner to generate cryptographic identifiers on a case-by case basis providing various levels of information disclosure and verification dependent on the nature of the interaction.
### Use case
Idnum generate a cryptographicall commitment of an identifier (unique phone number from their pool) to given subject.
The Idnum does not want or need to know anything about that specific subject. The information should be able to be available in a form of portable credential which subject can present to the telecom provider to request registration process of that specific identifier and converting it to real phone number. It should be possible as a owner of such identifier to delegate access to it to another person or fully transfer ownership of the idenfitier to another person.
## Digital Immunization Passport (DIP)
Currently, vaccination and immunization information are spread over different organizations like labs and hospitals as well as pharmaceutical companies together with government agencies. A patient usually only has a paper certificate that provides vaccination treatments with often difficult to read handwritten additional information.
DIP provides Data Interoperability & Compatibility through establishing interfaces between the health industry and individuals as well as pushing forward on standardized interfaces for Personal Data Stores. Additionally, Data Transparency (Usage Policies and Data Provenance in Semantic Containers) and Security & Privacy (by applying blockchain technology and digital watermarking on data sharing) should be addressed.
### Use case
Below diagram shows the components and involved parties with DIP project:
The main use case is to assure secure data flow between Lab <-> User <-> Officer and Governmental institution.
The most important part is to address semantic of the data which flows trough the pipelines and how those pipelines are controlled by the subject of the data.
A lot of the data sets which are shared can be pass further on to other entities, could be merged, combined with other data sources but still with possibility to verify the consent given by subject and being able to operate within specific context.
## Anonymized Data Chains
Quite often when data are collected user is request to provide consent for purpose of managing shared data set. This consent is tied to specific subject which gives the permission to work with data with specific purpose (e.g. allowing to use data for purpose of research).
Organizations and companies to reduce the risk with handling personal information (sensitive data) quite often going trough the process of anonymization steps to strip out all sensitive information which are not needed for their purposes. They end up with huge data sets without link to any subject. Since the given consent is linked with the subject and the link to the subject is removed, data ends up in the gray area where is not clear how the data can be used or with whom can be shared.
### Use case
Company A creates data lake with huge data set about vaccination. To reduce the risk of leaking any sensitive information and creating honey pot they cleared any PIIs which could identify subject.
Since the link between the data and subject is gone Company A needs a mechanism to be able to preserve the information and being able to prove:
- origin of the data
- valid consent for that specific data set