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VII. The properties of the semantic field语义场的特性 1. The semantic field does have the characteristics of a „field” 语义场确实具有『场』的特性 a) Continuity 它具有连贯性 b) Discontinuity 它又具有不连贯性 c) Distinct and discontinuous elements within the continuity 连贯性中蕴含了独一无二且并不连贯的成分 d) These units can be singled out but not separated from the unit as a whole 这些单元可以一一拎出来解读,却不能从整体中完全分离出来看待 e) Forces at the points (vector)  activated and polarized  potentialities reveal themselves and disappear –> producing stabilities 每个点都有一个矢量,矢量被激活以后整个场就具有极性,而每个点的潜能都因此显露出来并正因如此而消失,从而带来了场的稳定 f) The dual properties polarize the semantic field, maintaining the tensions and invigorating them 语言的二元特性(譬如其的表现性和意指功能)使整个语义场极化,并维持了场的张力,从而增强了场 g) The semantic field is more animated and more complex than physical realities 语义场比物理学意义上的场更具有灵动性和复杂性 2. The structure of semantic fields 语义场的结构 a) The semantic field has a structure 语义场具有某种结构 b) This structure cannot be reduced to a certain kind of specific structure 这个结构不能被简化为某种具象的结构,譬如说结构语言学就不能被看作是这种结构的模型 c) It is beyond language; it is a model of harmonics 这个场是超越语言的,它毋宁说是一个和声学(关于乐器)的模型 (联想:毕达哥拉斯的音乐宇宙学说 Musica universalis or Harmony of the Spheres) d) The entire field is open 整个场是开放的 VIII. Consciousness and the semantic field意识与语义场 1. Social and individual consciousness is neither the consciousness of the semantic field as a whole, nor a reflection of it: it is not external 社会和个人意识并不存在于语义场之外:它们并不是整个语义场的意识,也不是语义场的映射 a) Consciousness is more than active on the semantic field; consciousness “is” the semantic field 意识并不仅仅是在活跃在语义场上,意识就『是』语义场 b) Reclaiming “is”: consciousness “is” the semantic field only providing that we purge “is” of all substantialist content, especially of all contamination by brute things 但这里的『是』只有在不具有实体论概念上的意义时才成立,特别是不能有纯粹事物的污染(杂糅) (可以理解为二者是通过is这个系动词(copula verb)在纯粹的概念上被连接起来,但并非是实体上的相等) c) Thus consciousness “is” not this and not that, but this and that taken as a whole 因此意识非此非彼,而是此与彼作为一个整体 d) “Things” and objects are given to consciousness with their connections and their significations 『事物』和物件是带着他们彼此的联系和意义一起被给予意识的 (意识在此处有某种接纳性,与下文有关) 2. Consciousness “is” receptiveness on a particular (affective) level of the symbolic nucleuses; it is receptiveness on a particular level of signals (the level of unmediated practical action); it “is” the lived on the semantic field; it coincides with it 意识『是』一种接纳性,是一种对(语义场中)象征性核心的一个特定层面(情感上)的接纳;它是对于特殊层面的信号的一种接纳(这个层面是位于无中介的实践行动上的)它是语义场上的『生活』,它与语义场共生 3. This is only entirely valid for social consciousness, but not for individual consciousness 但这仅仅适用于社会意识,而不适用于个人意识 4. Individual Consciousness 个人意识 a) Discourse, or triviality in discourse: the most solid aspect of the everyday, and the point of departure of individual consciousness and its sphere of activity, a portion of the semantic field 话语,或者说是话语中的平凡性:它是日常生活最稳固的一个方面,也是个人意识的发源点和它的活动空间,同时也仅是语义场的一个部分 b) It is commonplaces, redundancy, intelligibility through familiarity 它是老生常谈,是繁文缛节,是通过熟悉感建立的起来的可理解性 c) Symbols from everyday life intervene and are perceived as being within things, as something external to them which has come to reinforce them emotionally 日常生活中的象征符号穿插其中,并被理解为是存在于事物之内的。它被视作是一种来在情感上加强事物本身的某种外在的东西 d) The symbol is an integral part of familiarity 象征符号是营造熟悉感必不可少的组成部分 e) Example: the symbolic Father and the emotionally perceived father 例子:天父(上帝)与父亲,前者是象征的,后者是情感的 f) The everyday takes its consciousness from signals and relegates symbolisms to “unconsciousness” 日常生活从信号中攫取它的意识,并将象征降格为『无意识』 (我学习的符号学将sign分为三种:index(有方向),icon(与其所指形态类似)以及symbol(与其所指的关系是arbitrary),这里的signal可能前文中有所涉及) g) Reflective consciousness: it tries to control the semantic field and may select a fragment of it as a means of defining it: it takes a symbolism and relegates it to the absolute 沉思的意识:它尝试着去控制语义场,可能会选取其一小部分,并将它视作定义语义场的工具,他用一个象征去绝对化一切 h) As for dialectical movements, there is no specific spot or place on the semantic field where it can be fixed 至于辩证运动,语义场上是没有它的固定位置的 5. Dialectical movements and the semantic field 辩证运动与语义场 a) Result 1: the semantic field Is a concept based on an experience; it is a theoretical concept, and thus forms part of a theory. It cannot be fully described 结果1:语义场是基于经验的概念;这是一种理论性的概念,因此也是理论的一部分。它不能被完全地用概念表述,因为每一种描述都可能塑造经验的并列空间(partes extra partes),从而会不全面 b) Result 2: any consciousness which has established itself firmly on the semantic field cannot really be trusted; individual and social consciousness cannot bring total knowledge of it 结果2: 任何将自己牢固地建立在语义场上的意识都不能真正为人信任;无论是个人意识还是社会意识都不能描绘全图 c) To grasp the contradictions of our society, we need a new level that sees the semantic field as a whole 为了了解社会矛盾,我们需要一个全新的理解层面,在这个层面上,整个语义场是一个整体 d) Dialectical thought will be necessary if we are to conceive of the semantic field, but it does not appear in or on the semantic field: it conceives of the latter from the vantage point of a higher level of reality and knowledge 辩证思考是我们理解语义场的必需,但是它自己并不出现在语义场里面或者上面:它通过从一个更高的现实与知识的层面来理解语义场 e) Only by painstaking analysis, or at a moment of intense crisis, will a society’s contradictions be made fully apparent 只有通过费劲心思的分析,或是一次刻骨铭心的危机,一个社会的内在矛盾才能充分展现出来 IX. The laws of the semantic field 语义场的法则 1. Signals 信号(当今社会的上升主流) a) The signal was born with industrialisation 信号是与工业化时代共同诞生的 b) One day the entire set of signals will constitute a sort of gigantic machine which will not need to be built, but which cyberneticists will simply formulate and put into action using existing connections and signalling 有一日,整个信号系统会构建起一个无需人去建立的偌大机器,只需要控制专家编程并通过使用现有的联结和信号来启用他 c) The signals are dismantling the semantic field 信号正在肢解语义场 d) They corrode symbols and lessen the tension between the poles of expression and signification to the advantage of the latter 他们腐蚀象征符号,并降低了表达和意义极点之间的张力,而且这是建立加强意义的基础上的 e) The semantic field becomes simplified and dialectic is replaced by logic 语义场被简化了,而辩证为逻辑所替代 f) The law of displacement: in and because of modern industry in industrial and technological society, the field in its entirety is displaced towards the pole of the ‘signal’ 移位法则:在工业化和科技社会的现代工业中(也正因为这种工业),整个语义场都被以『信号』为导向的极点替换了 2. Symbols 象征(较为原始) a) Symbolisms are the result of an initial displacement, an initial broadening of the semantic field. 象征主义是一种元初的移位,是一种元初的语义场的扩展。 b) Everyday life immerses itself in symbols, but they elude it, because they elude us. 日常生活将自己浸淫在象征中,但是象征却躲避着日常生活,因为象征躲避着我们 c) Symbols are ambiguous and innate dialectical movements which are revealed by us. 象征十分模糊并内含辩证运动,而我们已经能够看穿洞察这一切。 d) Peasant societies, ‘mythical tales’ – controlled by symbolisms 农民社会,『传说故事』 -- 为象征所控制 e) Paradoxical: Everyday life is not separate from symbolisms, and yet it did not merge with them 矛盾之处:日常生活并不与象征剥离,但也不与其融合(例如『原始人』知道什么时候山是圣山,而什么时候它是普通的山) 3. Signs 符号(出现在象征之后) a) Signs – writing, logos, discourse 符号——写作,理性(逻格斯),话语 b) Signs masquerade as symbolisms, modifying and corroding them. A vast displacement of the whole semantic filed takes place which both enriches it and overthrows it. 符号伪装成象征主义,修改并蚕食他们。一场对于整个语义场进行的大型移位行动开始了,而它既丰富了语义场也颠覆了语义场。 c) Whereas signs intervene on the level of representations, symbols are active on another level of existence and consciousness: affectivity, spontaneity and emotivity – a misconsciousness 当符号替代象征而涉足了描绘、代表事物的层面,象征则在另一个存在与意识的层面十分活跃,这涉及到情感性,自发行为与易感性——一种所谓的『误意识』 (我的想法:象征并没有在我们这充斥着符号或者信号的社会退出;相反的,它广泛存在在孩童对于情感的懵懂认知中,存在于成人自发的情感中) d) Archaic symbolisms are constantly tearing through the fabric of signs and of coherent discourse 古老的象征主义一直在撕扯符号和连贯的话语所构成的结构(任何一种层级对另一个层级的囊括或者伪装都具有摧毁性) 4. Revolution a) Every revolution destroys a set of symbols. Or else, in attempting to destroy them, it destroys itself, because symbols paly a structural role 每一场革命都会摧毁一系列的象征。或者说,在尝试着摧毁这些象征之时,革命也在摧毁自我——因为象征起到了结构的作用 b) The same revolution would not withstand the pressures of time and the rhythms of (cosmic and social) time, which it was unable to rescue from the ancient symbolisms resurrected by religion: seasonal festivals, sacred numbers, cyclic organisations. 这场革命不能抵挡时间的压力和时间的音韵。这些压力和音韵是难于从宗教重建起来的古老象征中拯救出来的:四季也好,神圣的数字也罢,抑或是周期性的组织 c) The symbolisms persisted and perpetuated beneath a space first occupied by signs and then by signals 象征主义在一个下层空间流传至今:它上面的空间不断改弦更张,从一开始的符号变成了后来的信号 d) The bourgeois society is apparently stable on the surface, but undermined by forces from below 资本主义社会的表面看起来波澜不惊,但是却会被由下而上的暗潮吞噬 e) Displacements provoke or reveal inverse phenomena: resurgences, returns, recollections 移位激化或者说揭露了恰恰相反的现象:重现,复辟,回忆 X. The social text 社会文本 1. ‘Social text’ is how we each perceive the semantic field in everyday life, in a non-conceptual or preconceptual (affective and perceptive) manner 社会文本描绘的是我们每个人如何在日常生活中以一种非概念或者是前概念的方式理解语义场的情景。 2. We all find ourselves constantly – on a daily basis – faced with a social text. 我们发现,我们时时刻刻都面对着社会文本。我们通过阅读社会文本和互相交流 3. We are not only readers; we are also read, deciphered and explained; we are primarily object, and at the same time subject 我们不仅是阅读者;我们也被阅读,被解码,被诠释;我们主要是客体,但同时也是主体 4. Signals constitute redundancy; signs bring information, symbols can be compared to the ‘noises’ which interfere with the information 信号构建了冗余;符号带来了信息,而象征则可与信息的背景噪音相比拟 5. A good social text is both legible and informative 一个好的社会文本是兼具可读性和信息量的 6. We can measure the richness of the social text by the extent to which it can vary while remaining accessible: by the richness of newness and possibilities it offers to individuals 我们可以通过衡量一个社会文本在能触及情况下所能达到的范围来测算一个社会文本的丰富程度,即它能为社会个体提供什么程度的新信息以及什么样的机会 7. In the village, everything remains symbolic and reveals the truth of symbolisms: archaic and powerful; everything is part of a song Poignantly archaic, everyday life offers itself with complete simplicity 在乡村,一切都是象征的,一切都揭露象征主义的真理:古老而又充满力量;一切事物都是音乐的一部分 乡村是令人心碎般地陈旧,乡村的日常生活用完全的简单来装饰自我 8. The landscape also offers a social text which is generally legible and often admirably composed, in which mankind and nature come face to face 风景也提供了一种社会文本,这种社会文本也是可读的,且它经常是一种令人景仰的方式构建起来的,在其中,人和自然被放在面对面的位置 9. In the city, symbol have lost the ubiquity they have retained in the village; this does not mean it has diminished; quite on the contrary, everything which has prestige and influence tends to link up with ancient symbolisms so as to exploit their age-old authority 在城市中,象征失去了其在农村留有的普遍存在性,但这并不意味着它消失了;恰恰相反,城市中一切有名誉或者影响力的东西都常常和古老的象征有关,以此来利用其内涵的悠久的权力 10. Symbolisms are condensed into monuments: churches, cathedrals, palaces, large public and private buildings 象征被压缩进了纪念碑里:教堂,大教堂,宫殿,巨大的公共和私人建筑等等 11. In working-class neighborhoods, there are few monuments. Symbols have disappeared. Here everything becomes a signal: the signal to start work and the gestures while working and the gestures which maintain the workforce 在工人阶级社区,基本没有纪念碑。象征物都消失了。这里一切都成为了信号:提示上班的信号,工作时的姿势,以及维持劳动力的姿势 12. The street is the most authentic; the street offers a lot of opportunities and choices 街道是城市最为地道的地方;它提供了很多可能 13. The places through which we pass and where we meet are more interesting than our homes and houses where we think 我们经过或者见面的地方比我们思考的地方,即我们自己的家,更有趣 那我们的未来会怎么样?