Chapter I:From the City to Urban Society 2017年09月13日晚 中国美术学院 日常生活批判 课程 **The Urban Revolution 都市革命 Chapter I:From the City to Urban Society 第一章:从城市到都市社会** 田长丰 --- 第一部分 第一段(P1) * hypothesis: **Society has been completely urbanized. (社会已经完全城市化了。)** * definition: An urban society is a society that results from a process of complete urbanization. (都市化社会就是一个社会,这是城市化的进程的结果。) * This urbanization is virtual today, but will become real in the future. (都市化如今还不能被直接感知,但是在未来会变的真实。) 第二段(P1) * urban society:city or urban agglomeration: the Greek polis, the oriental or medieval city, commercial and industrial cities, small cities, the megalopolis. (都市社会这个词通常被指代为任何一个城市或者城市群:希腊城邦、东方的或中世纪的城市、商业城市或工业城市、小城市、特大城市。) * We have forgotten or overlooked the social relationships (primarily relationships of production) with which each urban type is associated. (我们已经忘记或者忽视了与每个城市类型相关联的社会关系——主要是生产关系。) * These so-called urban societies are **often compared with one another**, even though they have nothing in common. (都市社会往往好相互比较,即使他们之间没有共性。) * ideologies : organicism, continuism, evolutionism 有机主义(被视为有机的整体)、持续主义(有自身的历史连续性)、进化论(在不同时期经由社会关系的转变或消失而变化)。) 第三段(P2) "urban society" to refer to the society that results from industrialization都市社会一词被用来指工业化产生结果 第四段(P2) I will use "urban society," a term that refers to tendencies, orientations, and virtualities, rather than any preordained reality.(我使用都市社会这个词表示一种倾向、方向和虚拟的,而不是前瞻性的现实。) 第五段(P2) * My hypothesis, which involves the so-called **social sciences**, is based on an epistemological and methodological approach. (我的假设,被称之为是社会科学,是建立在一个认识论和方法论的运用中。) * Nor does it necessarily construct its object for the sake of a theory that predates knowledge, a theory of the object or its "models." (为了理解这个理论的内涵,研究对象本身或其模型的理论将被建造。) * In my approach, the object is included in the hypothesis; the hypothesis comprehends the object. (在我的研究中,对象被包含在假设中,假设理解对象。) * Even though this "object" is located outside any (empirical) fact, it is not fictional. (即使这个对象至于任何事实之外,它也不是虚构的。) * We can assume the existence of a virtual object, urban society; that is, a possible object, whose growth and development can be analyzed in relation to a process and a praxis (practical activity). (我们可以假设一个虚拟的对象——都市社会,这是一个既定对象,其发展可以在过程与实践活动中被检验。) * a hypothesis must be validated. (假设必须得到验证。) 第六段(P3) * agricultural production has lost all its autonomy农业生产丧失了自主权。 * agricultural production has been changed into a form of industrial production, subject to its constraints.农业生产变成了工业生产的一种形式,并受其限制。 * Economic growth and industrialization have become self-legitimating经济增长和工业化已经变得合法化the village has been transformed.农村已经发生了变化。 * The concentration of the population goes hand in hand with that of the mode of production. (人口的集中与生产方式紧密相连。) * The urban fabric grows, extends its borders, corrodes the residue of agrarian life. (城市的结构延伸了,侵蚀了农业生活。) * As this global process of industrialization and urbanization was taking place, the large cities exploded, giving rise to growths of dubious value: suburbs, residential conglomerations and industrial complexes, satellite cities that differed little from urbanized towns. (工业化和都市化是全球化进程的标志,大城市出现导致了含混不清的价值增长:郊区、住宅区和工业园区、与都市化的城镇相差无几的卫星城。) * Small and midsize cities became dependencies, partial colonies of the metropolis. (中小城市开始成为大城市的附庸,沦为大城市的殖民地。) * my hypothesis serves both as a point of arrival for existing knowledge and a point of departure for a new study and new projects: complete urbanization. (我的假设可以被视为现有知识的终点和新研究新项目的起点:完全的都市化进程。) 第七段(P4) we limit our examination of trends and virtualities to "infrastructure," a realist attitude将研究的限定在“基础设施”,一个现实主义态度 第八段(P5) * **The expression "urban society" meets a theoretical need. (都市社会的表述符合理论需要。)** * This movement, if it proves to be true, will lead to a practice, urban practice, that is finally or newly comprehended. (这个运动,如果被证明是真实的,它将会导致一种实践——都市实践,将成为一个新的认识。) * But there is no empirical recipe for fabricating this product, this urban reality. (但是,制造这个产品——都市的现实,没有经验性的方法可使用。) * we can build a theory from a theoretical hypothesis. (我们可以从理论的假设中构建一个理论。)a theory is associated with a methodology. (这个理论的发展与一个方法有关。) * transduction. * The concept of an urban society, implies a hypothesis and a definition.(都市社会这个概念,它包含着一个假设和一个定义。) 第九段(P5) * "urban revolution" , refer to the transformations that affect contemporary society,都市革命指的是影响当代社会的转型 * transformation is a legitimate question.这是一个合法性的问题。 * The words "urban revolution" do not in themselves refer to actions that are violent. (都市革命本身并不是指暴力行为。)Nor do they exclude them. (但也不排斥暴力行为。) * But how do we discriminate between the outcome of violent action and the product of rational action before their occurrence? (但是我们如何能够区分暴力活动和理性行为的结果?) --- 第二部分 第十段(P6) **two aspects** * urbanism as a social practice that is fundamentally scientific and technical in nature.都市主义视为一个社会实践,本质上是一个科学技术。 * epistemology认识论 * being-taken precedence over its scientific nature.优先于科学性。 * as a policy, urbanism can be criticized both from the right and the left.作为一个政策,都市主义受广泛批评。 * The critique from the right, is focused on the past and is frequently humanist. (人文主义者往往关注的是过去。)It subsumes and justifies a neoliberal ideology of "free enterprise," directly or indirectly. (它直接或间接地体现了新自由主义的思想。)The critique from the left, frequently overlooked, is not associated with any so-called leftist group, club, party, apparatus, or ideology. (另一边的批评通常被忽视,而它与左派的团体、组织、政党、意识形态往往没有任何关系。)Rather, occupied by existing social, political, and economic forces. (相反,由现有的社会、政治、经济的力量占领。) * It is a utopian critique一个乌托邦式的批评 第十一段(P7) * draw an axis * **this axis is both spatial and temporal:包括了时间和空间。** * spatial because the process extends through space, temporal because it develops over time. (spatial空间因为延伸通过 space空间 的过程。时间随着时间的推移而发展。) * Temporality, initially of secondary importance, eventually becomes the predominant aspect of practice and history. (时间,最初是次要的,但最终成为实践和历史的主要方面。) * Schema——abstract and arbitrary and gives rise to operations 第十二段(P7) * Around this initial zero, the first human groups (gatherers, fishers, hunters, possibly herders) marked out and named space; they explored it while marking it. (在这个轴线的开端,有一些人,采集者,渔民,猎人,可能是牧民标出并命名空间;他们在标记它的时候探讨了它。) * What is important is that in many places around the world, and most certainly any place with a history, the existence of the city has accompanied or followed that of the village. (重要的是,在世界上很多地方,特别是有历史的地方,城市是伴随着这些村庄而存在。) * The representation according to which cultivated land, the village, and farm civilization slowly secreted urban reality reflects an ideology. (这代表了一个思想,耕地,村庄,农业文明慢慢分解变成了城市。) * Eg. ——the breakdown of the Roman Empire and following the reconstruction of the medieval city. 罗马帝国的崩溃和中世纪城市的重建是例子。 * Agriculture through pressure农业被专职化——political city导致了政治型城市的建立 第十三段(P8) * based primarily on studies and documents concerning "Asian modes of production,"来自于亚洲生产方式的研究得到的结论。 * **The general question of the relationship between the city and the countryside is far from being resolved. (城乡关系的一般性问题仍未得到解决。)** 第十四段(P8) * **the political city at the point of origin on the space-time axis. 政治型城市定位在轴线的起点。** * The political city was populated primarily by priests. warriors, princes. "nobles." and military leaders, but administrators and scribes were also present. (政治型城市主要由牧师组成,战士、王子、贵族、军事领导人,但是管理人员和文职人员也在内。)The political city is completely given over to orders and decrees, to power. (它完全按照命令和法令赋予权力。) * comprises artisans and workers.包括工匠和工人。 * The political city administers, protects, and exploits a territory that is often vast. (政治城市管理、保护和利用广大的领土。) It manages large-scale agricultural projects管理大型的农业项目,如排水、灌溉、水坝建设、土地整理。It rules over a number of villages.统治了一些村庄the payment of tribute.上贡(缴税) 第十五段(P9) * In such an environment, exchange and trade can only expand. (在这样的环境下,交流和贸易只能扩张。) Initially confined to suspicious individuals, to “strangers,” they become functionally integrated into the life of the city.陌生人融入都市生活。 * The political city resists this with all the power 政治型城市支配一切——Athens雅典为例 * In truth, it is only in the European West, at the end of the Middle Ages, that merchandise, the market, and merchants were able to successfully penetrate the city. 事实上,只有中世纪末期的欧洲西部,商品、市场和商人才能够成功地打入城市。 * Based on this assumption, the renewed political city would have served as a frame for the action that was to transform it. 基于这一假设,新的政治型城市将成为改变它的行动的框架。 * Around the market, which had now become an essential part of the city, were grouped the church and town hall (occupied by a merchant oligarchy), with its belfry or campanile, the symbol of liberty. 教堂和市政厅(由商人寡头占据)——钟楼——自由的象征。 * Architecture follows and translates the new conception of the city.建筑为此塑造了新的概念。 * **Urban space becomes the meeting place for goods and people, for exchange. 都市空间开始成为聚会和交换的场所。** * In the fourteenth century, it was believed that it was sufficient to establish a market and build stores, gateways, and galleries around a central square to promote the growth of goods and buyers. 人们相信在中心广场周围建立市场可以促进商品销售。 * The merchant city succeeded the political city, commercial exchange became an urban function14世纪,商业交流开始成为都市的功能之一。This in turn gave urban space a new structure. 给城市带来了新格局。——Paris巴黎为例illustrate this complex interaction among the three essential aspects of function, form, and structure. 功能、形式和结构的复杂互动。 * Market towns and suburbs, began to struggle with centers of political power (institutions) for influence, prestige, and space, forcing them to compromise, entering with them in the construction of a powerful urban unity.市镇与郊区与政治型城市相互斗争与妥协 第十六段(P11) * unnoticed:The importance of the city 城市重要/In the relationship between town and country, the emphasis was still on the countryside乡镇关系中核心仍然在农村: real property wealth, the products of the soil, attachment to the land不动产财产,土地产品,土地附属物. * Compared with the countryside, the town retained its heterotopic character, marked by its ramparts as well as the transition to suburban areas. 镇发生了变化,逐步沦为城市的郊区。——should be marked along our axis. 第十七段(P11) * From this moment on society no longer coincides with the countryside. It no longer coincides with the city, either. 农村和城市(两个类型)在社会的语境下被分化了。 * the majesty of the state was veiled to its contemporaries.王权的意义发生了变化 * the destruction of Athens and Rome, its rebirth was not attributed to the renaissance of the urban world but to transcendent reason. 希腊与罗马的重生不能归功于都市世界的复兴而是超越。 * the primacy of the peasantry with the priority of urban life. 农民的优先地位——**the image of the city came into being.城市的形象开始形成** 第十八段(P12) * **the city developed its own form of writing**: the map or plan, the science of planimetry. 城市以地图的方式被书写(有了自己的写作方式) * During the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries—— the first maps of the city of Paris. 巴黎地图 * **A cross between vision and concept, works of art and science, they displayed the city from top to bottom, in perspective, painted, depicted, and geometrically described. This perspective, simultaneously idealist and realist--the perspective of thought and power--was situated in the vertical dimension, the dimension of knowledge and reason, and dominated and constituted a totality: the city.在视觉与概念、艺术与科学的交叉中,他们从上到下,从透视、描绘、描绘和几何描述上展示了这个城市。这个观点,同时是理想主义者和现实主义者——思想和权力的观点——处于垂直的维度,知识和理性的维度,支配和构成了一个整体——城市。** 第十九段(P13) * This reversal of meaning can't be dissociated from the growth of commercial capital and the existence of the market. 这种意义的逆转不能与商业资本的增长和市场的存在分开。 * the industrial city. 工业型城市——Was industry associated with the city? * We know that industry initially developed near the sources of energy (coal and water), raw materials (metals, textiles), and manpower reserves. 能源(煤和水),原材料(金属,纺织品)和人力储备作为基础 * Industry gradually made its way into the city in search of capital and capitalists, markets, and an abundant supply of low-cost labor.走向城市,寻求资本和资本主义市场,以及廉价劳动力的大量供应。 * the political city resisted mercantile city, industrial capital——establishing relationships. 政治型和商业型城市通过建立关系(团结)抵抗工业化城市, * the non-city and the anti-city would conquer the city, penetrate it, break it apart, and in so doing extend it immeasurably, bringing about the urbanization of society and the growth of the urban fabric that covered what was left of the city prior to the arrival of industry. 非城市和反城市将征服城市,渗透城市,打破城市,把它分开,这样做是不可估量的,带来了城市化社会和城市布局的增长,涵盖了工业到来之前留下的城市。 * Urban reality: organic totality, belonging, an uplifting image, a sense of space that was measured and dominated by monumental splendor. 有机整体、归属性、令人振奋的形象、纪念性意义 * It was sometimes read as a rough draft, sometimes as an authoritarian message. 有时被看作是一个粗略的草稿,有时是一个专制信息。 * the tremendous concentration (of people, activities, wealth, goods, objects, instruments, means, and thought) of urban reality and the immense explosion, 城市的巨大集中(人,活动,财富,商品,物体,仪器,手段和思想)现实和巨大的爆炸—— a metaphor borrowed 第二十段(P13) * The industrial city serves as a prelude to a critical zone. 工业城市成为临界区的前奏。 * This growth extends from simple barter to the global market, from the simple exchange between two individuals all the way to the exchange of products, works of art, ideas, and human beings. 工业生产增加叠加在商业交流的增长之上 * *During this period of generalization, the effect of the process--namely the urban reality--becomes both cause and reason. ——**The urban problematic becomes a global phenomenon. 都市问题成为一个全球化现象** * Urban reality modifies the relations of production without being sufficient to transform them. 城市现实改变了生产关系,但不足以改造它们 * It becomes a productive force, like science. 它成为一种生产力,就像科学一样。 * Space and the politics of space "express" social relationships but react against them. 空间和空间政治“表达”社会关系,但对他们作出反应。 * **这一段话最后五个提问** 第二十一段(P15) 轴线表述 --- 第三部分 第二十二段(P16) * **What occurs during the critical phase? This book is an attempt to answer that question, which situates the urban problematic within the overall process. ——这本书的核心!** * Industrialization, the dominant power and limiting factor, becomes a dominated reality during periods of profound crisis. This results in tremendous confusion, during which the past and the possible, the best and the worst, become intertwined.工业化是主导权力和制约因素,在深刻的危机期间成为主导的现实。 这导致了巨大的混乱,过去和可能的,最好的和最坏的,变得交织在一起。 第二十三段(P16) * we should not overlook the fact that the onset of urban society and the modalities of urbanization depend on the characteristics of society as it existed during the course of industrialization (neocapitalist or socialist, full economic growth or intense automation). 不能忽略都市社会的发生和城市化模式取决于社会的特征,因为它存在于工业化进程中(新自由主义或社会主义,经济全面增长或激烈的自动化) * "urban" preferable to the "city" * which appears to designate a clearly defined, definitive object, a scientific object and the immediate goal of action, whereas the theoretical approach requires a critique of this "object" and a more complex notion of the virtual or possible object. 似乎指明了一个明确界定的,明确的对象,科学对象和行动的直接目标,而理论方法则需要对这个“对象”的批评和更为复杂的概念虚拟或可能的对象。 * Within this perspective there is no science of the city (such as urban sociology or urban economy), but an emerging understanding of the overall process, as well as its term (goal and direction). 城市没有科学(如城市社会学或城市经济),而是对整个过程及其术语(目标和方向)的新兴认识。 第二十四段(P16) * **The urban (an abbreviated form of urban society) can therefore be defined not as an accomplished reality, as a horizon, an illuminating virtuality.都市社会不是一个完整的现实** * Can theoretical knowledge treat this virtual object, the goal of action, as an abstraction? 理论知识可以将这个虚拟对象,行动的目标抽象化?No. only in the sense that it is a scientific, and therefore legitimate, abstraction. 科学而合法 * the foundation on which it resides: **an ongoing social practice, an urban practice in the process of formation. 它所依赖的基础:持续的社会实践** * It is an aspect of the critical phase that this practice is currently veiled and disjointed, that it possesses only fragments of a reality and a science that are still in the future. 这是当前这个实践被遮掩和脱节的关键阶段的一个方面,它只是现实中仍然是未来的现实和科学的碎片。 * the urban problematic requires that we exercise considerable caution when exploring the realm of the possible.要小心谨慎地探索都市问题——**as a kind of black box.黑箱认知** * This makes conventional procedures of forecasting and projection useless**常规的预测手段无效了** * Projections and forecasts have a determined basis in demography, political economy.只有人口学,政治经济学才能起到作用 --- 第四部分 第二十五段(P18) introduce the pros and cons of streets and monuments. 利弊分析 街道与纪念碑 第二十六段(P19) * The street is more than just a place for movement and circulation. 运动和流通 * the automobile is a key object 汽车harmful to urban and social life. * The day is approaching when we will be forced to limit the rights and powers of the automobile. 当我们被迫限制汽车的权利和权力——this won't be easy * Street: a meeting place (tapas), for without it no other designated encounters are possible (cafes, theaters, halls) * in the street, a form of spontaneous theater, I become spectacle and spectator, and sometimes an actor. 在街上,一种形式的自发剧场,我变成了景观(别人眼中的景观)和观众,演员。 * The street is where movement takes place, the interaction without which urban life would not exist街道是发生活动的地方,没有城市生活的相互作用街道就不会存在 * there are consequences to eliminating the street (Le Corbusier): the extinction of life, the reduction of the city to a dormitory, the aberrant functionalization of existence. * 消除街道的后果:生命的灭绝,人们只愿意在宿舍离呆着,存在的功能异常化 * The street contains functions that were overlooked by Le Corbusier: the informative function, the symbolic function, the ludic function. 信息功能,符号功能,游憩功能。 * Jane Jacobs:the street (highly trafficked, busy) provides the only security possible against criminal violence (theft, rape, aggression). 忙碌的街道是唯一可以防止犯罪暴力(盗窃,强奸和侵略?)的安全措施。 * In the street and through the space it offered, a group (the city itself) took shape, appeared, appropriated places, realized an appropriated space-time. 在街道上,通过它所提供的空间,一个群体(城市本身)成形了,出现了,占据了地方,实现了一个专用的时空。 * This appropriation demonstrates that use and use value can dominate exchange and exchange value. 使用和使用价值可以主导交换和交换价值。 第二十七段(P19) * Revolutionary events generally take place in the street. 革命事件一般发生在街上。 * The urban space of the street is a place for talk城市的街道空间是一个交流的地方 第二十八段(P19) **Against the street** * In the street, we merely brush shoulders with others, we don't interact with them. 在街上,我们只是和别人一起轻触肩膀,我们不和他们互动。It's the "we" that is important. “ 我们” 很重要。 * The street prevents the constitution of a group街道阻止了一个群体的组成 * In antiquity, the streets were merely extensions of places with specialized functions: the temple, the stadium, the agora, the garden. 在古代,街道只是扩大具有专门功能的地方:寺庙,体育馆,集市,花园。 * During the Middle Ages, artisans occupied the streets.在中世纪,工匠占领了街道。The artisan was both producer and seller.工匠既是生产者也是销售者。 * The artisans were followed by merchants, soon became masters.工匠们跟着商人,很快成为主人(能够有独立决策权的人)。 * The street became a display街道成为一个展示厅 * the critique of the street must be more incisive对街道的批评必须更加尖锐 * Movement in the street, a communications space, is both obligatory and repressed. 强制与压制 * Whenever threatened, the first thing power restricts is the ability to linger or assemble in the street. 徘徊或聚集在街道上 * the street may have once had the meaning of a meeting place, it has since lost it * The street became a network organized for and by consumption.  街道成为组织和消费的网络。 * Time became "merchandise time" (time for buying and selling, time bought and sold). 时间成为“商品时间”(买卖时间,时间买卖)。 * The street regulated time outside of work; 第二十九段(P20) * The street, illustrates just how the logic of merchandise is accompanied by a form of (passive) contemplation that assumes the appearance and significance of an aesthetics and an ethics.  说明了商品的逻辑如何伴随着一种被动的的形式,它承担着美学和伦理的外观和意义。 * The accumulation of objects accompanies the growth of population and capital; it is transformed into an ideology, which, dissimulated beneath the traits of the legible and visible, comes to seem self-evident. 物质的积累伴随着人口和资本的增长;它变成了一种意识形态,在可见和可见的特征之下,似乎不言而喻。 * a colonization of the urban space都市空间的殖民化 * The parades, masquerades, balls, and folklore festivals authorized by a power structure caricaturize the appropriation and reappropriation of space. 游行,化装舞会,球和民间传说节日使占用和重新占用空间变得更加广泛。 第三十段(P21) **Against the monument** * The monument is essentially repressive.  纪念碑本质上是压制(压抑)的。 * It is the seat of an institution (the church, the state, the university).  它是一个机构(教会,国家,大学)的所在地。 * Any space that is organized around the monument is colonized and oppressed. 压迫感 * The great monuments have been raised to glorify conquerors and the powerful. 荣耀感 * the Taj Mahal 泰姬陵 * The misfortune of architecture is wanted to construct monuments, but the idea of habiting them was either conceived in terms of those monuments or neglected entirely. 是完全被忽视的 * The extension of monumental space to habiting is always catastrophic灾难性 * Monumental splendor is formal. 华丽而正式 * And although the monument is always laden with symbols装饰符号 * already outdated, are beginning to lose their meaning, 已经过时了,开始失去意义 * the symbols of the revolution on the Napoleonic Arc de Triomphe.  作为革命象征的拿破仑凯旋门 第三十一段(P21) **For the monument** * Beauty and monumentality go hand in hand. 美丽与纪念性携手并进 * The great monuments were transfunctional (cathedrals) and even transcultural (tombs). 伟大的纪念碑是多功能的(大教堂),甚至跨文化(墓)。 * ethical and aesthetic power. 伦理和审美力量 * whereas the city projected social life.突出了城市的社会生活 * In their very essence, and sometimes at the very heart of a space in which the characteristics of a society are most recognizable and commonplace, monuments embody a sense of transcendence, a sense of being elsewhere. 在其本质上,有时候是一个社会特征,具有识别性和普遍性的空间的核心 * They have always been u-topic. 主题 * Proclaimed duty, power, knowledge, joy, hope. 宣告了义务,权力,知识,喜悦,希望。