# Bread Notes Link to untested [Bread Ideas](https://hackmd.io/@aphanotus/breadideas) :::info ## General tips - **Start the yeast**. For any recipe using dry yeast, mix the yeast with warm water (110-115˚F) and about 1 teaspoon of honey. Let it stand for 5-10 min, until foamy. This will activate the yeast. - In any recipe, **it's possible to substitute sourdough starter for flour and water**. For example 100 g of starter can replace 50 g water and 50 g flour. Be sure to keep at least 50 g of water in the recipt to start the yeast-- and it does seem wise to keep at least some dried yeast in the bake. - **In our convection oven**, it's always necessary to cover bread to prevent the top from burning. Place a bread pan in the air frying basket on the bottom rung to maximize its head space. ::: ## Sandwich Bread Last made: 26 June 2022 Modified from Mark Bittman's recipe in *How to Cook Everything*. ### Ingredients - 79g (1/3 cup) water, 110˚F - 2 tsp instant yeast - 3 Tbsp honey - 390g (3 1/4 cups) all-purpose flour - 30g (1/4 cup) whole wheat flour - 1.5 tsp salt - 236g (1 cup) milk, room temperature - 2 Tbsp melted butter ### Preparation - [ ] Mix the yeast and warm water with 1/2 tbsp of honey. Let stand for 10 min. - [ ] Combine the other dry ingredients in a large bowl. - [ ] Add the remaining wet ingredients. - [ ] Knead for 10 min. - [ ] Shape the dough into a ball, and let it rise in a large bowl whose sides are coated with butter, at least 2 hours. - [ ] Deflate the dough, reshape into a ball, and let it rest on a lightly floured surface for 15 min. - [ ] Shape the dough into a rectangle using the heel of your hand. Fold the sides into the center and seal by pincing. Seal the ends too. Flip it over and place in a buttered loaf pan. - [ ] Press the dough into the pan with the back of your hand. - [ ] Let rise for 1 hour. - [ ] Preheat the oven to 350˚F. - [ ] Brush the dough with water. - [ ] Bake for 45 min. Cover after 10. - [ ] Cool on a wire rack. --- ## Rustic Sourdough Bread ![](https://www.kingarthurbaking.com/sites/default/files/styles/featured_image_2x/public/2021-07/Rustic-Sourdough-Loaf_0049__0.jpg?itok=LYVPe6xn) Last baked on 30 April 2022. Recipe modified from [King Arthur](https://www.kingarthurbaking.com/recipes/rustic-sourdough-bread-recipe) and recommended by Alex Champion. ### Ingredients - 1 cup ripe sourdough starter - 3/4 cups water, lukewarm - 1 teaspoons instant yeast - 1 1/4 teaspoons salt - 2.5 cups all-purpose flour ### Procedure - [ ] Combine all of the ingredients. - [ ] Knead to form a smooth dough. - [ ] Proof, in a lightly greased, covered bowl, until it's doubled in size, about 90 minutes. - [ ] Elongate the dough ball by gently rolling it back and forth on an unfloured work surface. For a longer loaf, continue rolling until they're about 10" to 11" long. - [ ] Place the loaf on parchment. Cover and let rise until very puffy, about 1 hour. - [ ] Spray the loaf with lukewarm water and dust generously with flour. - [ ] Make two fairly deep diagonal slashes with a serrated bread knife. - [ ] Bake at 425°F for 25-35 minutes, until it's a deep golden brown. --- ## Dark Rye Bread ![](https://i.imgur.com/JFIbPVs.jpg) This recipe is light on the rye and heavy on cocoa powder and mollasses. It does not have the classic caraway seed flavor of rye bread. But it tastes great! Modified from [Simply Recipes](https://www.simplyrecipes.com/recipes/georges_light_rye_bread/) and [Jo Cooks](https://www.jocooks.com/recipes/dark-rye-bread/). Last baked March 5, 2022. - I liked it, but Serena suggested the cocoa powder was too much and made it a bit bitter. In the future, I might cut the cocoa and/or add more molasses or sugar to sweeten it. ### Ingredients - 1.5 tablespoon active dry yeast - 2 cups water, lukewarm - 3 tablespoon molasses - 1/4 cup cocoa powder - 1.5 teaspoon salt - 2 tablespoon vegetable oil - 1.5 cups rye flour - 3 cups all-purpose flour - cornmeal for dusting ### Preparation - [ ] **Proof the yeast.** Mix yeast and warm water in a large mixing bowl. Let stand for 5-10 min, until foamy. - [ ] **Add** the molasses, cocoa powder, salt, caraway seeds (optional), vegetable oil, rye flour, and about 2 1/2 cups of all purpose flour. - [ ] **Knead** the dough by pressing down with the heel of your hand, stretching it, turning the dough a quarter-turn, pulling the dough back toward you and then pressing and stretching again. Knead additional bread flour into the dough until it reaches the right consistency. Knead for 5-7 minutes, or until the dough is smooth and elastic. - [ ] **First rise.** Spray a bowl and the dough (yes!) in vegetable oil. Cover and rest until it doubles in size (about 1 hour). - [ ] **Second rise.** The second rise and bake can be done on a sheet, in a loaf pan, or in Dutch oven. Spray whatever it is, and dust with cornmeal. Punch down the dough, then form it into a ball. Transfer to its baking vessel and let it rise 35 - 40 minutes, until doubled in size. - [ ] Sprinkle a bit of flour over the top. Cut a few slashes with a sharp knife. - [ ] **Bake** at 425 F° for 35-40 min. :::info **Crust will require steam**. Either bake with a pan or ramekin of water or mist the dough for the first 10 minutes of baking. ::: --- ## Ginger Turmeric Bread ![](https://i.imgur.com/R9bnuon.jpg) Last made: 1/30/2022 I've made this bread several times. It's easy and gets attention becuase of the bright color. Rowan loves this bread! Note that this is bread with ginger, not gingerbread. The recipe is based on one from [Epicurious](https://www.epicurious.com/recipes/member/views/ginger-turmeric-yeast-bread-52714511). ### Ingredients - 360 g (3 cups) bread flour - 1.5 tsp yeast - 1.5 tsp salt - 1 tsp sugar - 1 tsp turmeric - 1 tsp ginger, freshly minced - 355 g (1.5 cups) water ### Preparation - [ ] Combine all the dry ingredients in a bowl and stir. :::info If time is limited for the first rise, start the yeast in some of all of the water. Warm the water first. ::: - [ ] Mince the ginger. - [ ] Add 1.5 cups of water and mix. - [ ] If the dough is still dry, add a little water until it becomes wortable. - [ ] Knead the dough a bit. - [ ] Add the ginger and continue kneading, until it passes the [windowpane test](https://www.thekitchn.com/bakers-techniques-how-to-do-th-70784). :::info If kneading is inconvenient, add 1 Tbsp gluten. ::: - [ ] Cover the dough and let it rise 2 to 14 hours. - [ ] After the first rise, turn the dough out onto a work surface and gently shape it into a round loaf. Don't knead it at this stage. - [ ] Transfer to a loaf pan lined with parchment paper. - [ ] Let the loaf rise for about 2 hours. Don't let it over rise! - [ ] Bake at 400˚F for about 40 minutes, or until the interior temperature reaches 210˚F. Check bread at about 20 minutes and cover loosely with aluminum foil to prevent over-browning of the top. :::info If you're using the convection oven, place the bread pan in the air frying basket on the bottom rungs. (Don't let the top of the bread get too close to the top elements!) The crust will be quite robust, so don't bother spraying any water. ::: - [ ] Turn the bread out on a rack to cool. ### Variations #### Everything Bread Instead of ginger and turmeric, this recipe worked great with 1 Tbsp of Everything Bagel seasoning. It can be baked right in. A bit extra can garnish the top. This mix already contains salt, so it might be healthier to reduce the salt if using Everything. Last baked 18 March 2022. ![](https://i.imgur.com/BtIDVL4.jpg) #### Twist ![](https://i.imgur.com/ix8WtVw.jpg) The two versions can also be twisted together. Reduce the scale to 2 cups of flour for each dough. I had each kid make their favorite. **Ingredients (for each dough)** - 2 cups bread flour - 1/4 tsp yeast - 1 tsp salt - 1 tsp sugar - 1 cup water for the Ginger/Turmeric dough - 3/4 tsp turmeric - 3/4 tsp ginger, freshly minced for the Everything dough - 2 tsp Everything bagel seasoning Initial prove 2 hours. The gently stretch them out and twist one another the other. We moved into a round spring-form pan for the second prove of about 3 hours. Baked at 400˚F for 35 min. --- ## Apple Raisin Nut Bread ![](https://i.imgur.com/vhg0Iqp.jpg) Last baked August 2022. I cobbled this recipe together from several semi-successful ones (a [raisin twist bread](https://www.food.com/recipe/worlds-best-cinnamon-raisin-bread-not-bread-machine-98867 ) and an [apple bread](https://www.seasonsandsuppers.ca/chunky-apple-yeast-bread/)). I think this one is more successful than either of those! ### Ingredients - 50 g water (110-115˚F) - 1 Tbsp active dry yeast - 250 g ripe sourdough starter (or substitute with 125 g water and 125 g flour) - 150 g warm milk (room temperature) - 2 Tbsp granulated sugar - 1 egg yolk - 1/4 tsp vanilla extract - 1/2 teaspoon salt - 290 g all-purpose flour - 4 Tbsp butter, softened - 100 g raisins optionally #### For the filling - about 246 g cropped apples, peeled and diced (1-2 apples) - 1/2 tsp nutmeg - 1/4 tsp cinnamon (optional) - 60 g honey - 1 egg yolk - 80 g chopped nuts (optional; may be walnuts, pecans or almonds) ### Procedure - [ ] Mix the yeast and warm water with a bit of honey or sugar. Let stand for 10 min. - [ ] Meanwhile, combine the salt and flour in a large bowl. - [ ] When the yeast culture is ready, combine all the dough ingredients, except for the butter and raisins. - [ ] Mix in the softened butter, 1 Tbsp at a time. - [ ] Knead for 12 min by hand or 7-8 in a mixer. - [ ] Add the raisins towards the end of the knead, or optionally include them in the filling. (Raisins will come apart if added too soon during kneading.) - [ ] Place in a large, buttered, mixing bowl and turn to grease the surface of the dough. - [ ] Rise until doubled, about 1 hour. - [ ] Meanwhile, mix toward all the ingredients for the filling in a large bowl. - [ ] Set it aside, but pill the filling up on one side, to allow any excess water to pool at the bottom. - [ ] Once risen, remove the dough to a floured work surface. :::info The filling needs to the heterogeneously arranged through the dough. The [raison bread](https://www.food.com/recipe/worlds-best-cinnamon-raisin-bread-not-bread-machine-98867 ) recipe that was one inspiration for this bake suggested spreading the dough, covering it with filling and **rolling** it. That didn't work well, since the filling settled down in the large interior spaces. The [apple bread](https://www.seasonsandsuppers.ca/chunky-apple-yeast-bread/) recipe contributing here, suggested making two tubes of dough stuffed with filling, cutting the tubes into **short bits** and arranging the bits at different angles. This kept the filling in place well, but never looked good for me. It was hard to keep the loaf even, and some filling was always visible on the outside. An alternative I like is to **braid** similarly filled tubes of dough. The plaits seem to merge, but the effect is to have nice swirls of filling. ::: - [ ] Divide the dough into 2-3 equal parts, and gently pat into long rectangles. - [ ] Scatter 2-3 equal parts of the filling evenly over of the dough rectangles, then them roll up. Pinch the seams together. - [ ] Braid the dough tubes. - [ ] Carefully transfer the braided dough into a lined, buttered loaf pan. - [ ] Cover and rise until doubled, about 45 minutes. - [ ] Optionally, wash the loaf with the remaining egg whites. - [ ] Bake at 350˚F for 60 minutes, or until the interior temperature reaches 210˚F. After about 5 min cover loosely with aluminum foil to prevent over-browning of the top. - [ ] Turn the bread out on a rack to cool. - [ ] For the optional glaze, mix ingredients together until smooth. Drizzle the loaf once it has cooled. --- ## Boston Brown Bread <img src="https://i.imgur.com/TpmXLYy.jpg" style="zoom: 50%;" /> I grew up with this stuff! A steamed bread with a strong molasses flavor. It's delicious with cream cheese! Modified from the recipe by [Simply Recipes](https://www.simplyrecipes.com/recipes/boston_brown_bread/). ### Ingredients - One metal 6-inch tall by 4-inch diameter coffee can. Ideally use one with a ring at the top, or remove the ring with a smooth-edge can opener. - Butter for greasing - 60 g (1/2 cup) all-purpose flour - 60 g (1/2 cup) rye flour - 60 g (1/2 cup) finely ground corn meal (must be finely ground) - 1/2 teaspoon baking powder - 1/2 teaspoon baking soda - 1/2 teaspoon salt - 1/4 teaspoon allspice - 1/4 tsp cinnamon - 140 g (1/2 cup) molasses - 225 g (1 cup) buttermilk - 1/2 teaspoon vanilla extract (optional) - 60 g (about 1/3 cup) raisins, boiled - 60 g (about 1/3 cup) dates, chopped ### Preparation - [ ] Set a steamer rack inside a tall stockpot. Fill the pot with enough water to come 1/3 of the way up the sides of the coffee can. Turn the burner on to medium as you work. - [ ] Grease the coffee can with butter. - [ ] Boil the raisins for 1 minute. Drain and cool. - [ ] Mix the dry ingredients in a large bowl. Whisk together. - [ ] Add the raisins and dates and stir to coat them. - [ ] In another bowl, mix together the wet ingredients. Whisk in the molasses. - [ ] Pour the wet ingredients into the dry and stir well with a spoon. - [ ] Pour batter into the can. Taking care that the batter not reach higher than 2/3 up the sides of the container. - [ ] Cover the can tightly with foil. - [ ] Steam the bread on the stovetop for at least 2 hours and 15 minutes. Check to see if the bread is done by inserting a toothpick into it. If the toothpick comes out clean, you're ready. If not, re-cover the pan and cook for up to another 45 minutes. - [ ] Let the bread cool for 1 hour before turning out of the container. - [ ] Slice and eat plain, or toast in a little butter in a frying pan. --- ## Pane Casereccio <img src="https://i.imgur.com/DKtJ1hP.jpg" style="zoom: 50%;" /> The name is Italian for "homemade bread". It uses a *biga* or sourdough starter. *Biga* is a bit thicker and more elastic than [King Arthur-style sourdough starter](https://www.kingarthurbaking.com/recipes/sourdough-starter-recipe). Bread nerds refer to this as [hydration](https://truesourdough.com/sourdough-hydration-explained-what-why-how-when/) in sourdough culture, the ratio of flour to water. Italian sourdoughs use biga with around 80% hydration. This one is 78%. I've tried this recipe with *una nuova biga* and by adding to existing sourdough, which people seemed to prefer. The *biga* should incubate overnight (12-16 hours). The main proof is about 5 hours. ### A note on the breads of Italy The recipe here is modified from one for *Pane Pugliese* by [Ciao Italianista](https://ciaoitalianista.com/recipe-pane-pugliese/). There are many rustic sourdoughs from different regions and cities in Italy, with names that translate as "bread from X". Most appear to differ only in small details of the fermentation and bake. For example, compare these recipes for [Pane di Genzano](https://www.spiceroots.com/pane-di-genzano/) and [Pane di Como](https://dawghousebakery.com/2020/11/19/recipe-pane-di-como-antico/). Sicilian breads, such as [Pagnotta del Dittaino](https://www.italianrecipebook.com/pagnotta-italian-round-bread/) and [Pane Siciliano](https://www.afamilyfeast.com/pane-siciliano-sesame-seed-sicilian-bread/), have some notable differences in ingredients and final texture. I'm also quite interested in trying [Pane Valle Maggia](https://cuisinehelvetica.com/2020/09/07/recipe-pane-valle-maggia/), also a sourdough but one that includes rye flour. It's from the Lugano region of Switzerland, near Milan, Italy, where my great-grandmother's family came from. Italy also has some very different breads, such as [ciriola](https://www.lacucinaitaliana.com/italian-food/italian-dishes/ciriola-roman-bread-made-in-lazio), a spindle-shaped roll popular in Lazio, [Pan dei Morti](https://www.lombardiafood.com/pan-dei-morti/), a sweet bread with raisins, almonds and figs traditionally made in Lombardia for Day-of-the-Dead, and [Frisella](https://anitalianinmykitchen.com/italian-friselle-recipe/), a twice-baked, bagel-shaped bread from Campania typically eaten with sliced tomatos. ### Ingredients for *biga* - 1/16 tsp active dry yeast - 15 g water (110˚F) - 50 g water (room temperature) - 83 g flour ### Ingredients for *biga* with sourdough starter (preferable) - 1/16 tsp active dry yeast - 15 g water (110˚F) - 33 g flour - 100 g starter <img src="https://i.imgur.com/VFyhs2S.jpg" style="zoom: 15%;" /> ### Ingredients for dough - 5/8 tsp active dry yeast - 30 g water (115˚F) - 360 g water (room temperature) - 100 g *biga* (or active sourdough starter) - 525 g flour - Good results with 5-10% semolina - 10 g salt ### Preparation #### For the ***biga*** - [ ] Stir the yeast into the warm water. Wait 10 minutes. - [ ] Mix in the remaining water and flour, stirring for 3-4 minutes. - [ ] Cover and let rise for 6-18 hours. #### For the dough - [ ] Stir the yeast into the warm water in a large bowl. Wait for 10 minutes. - [ ] Meanwhile, mix the flour and salt in another large bowl. Lightly oil a large bowl for the proof and set it aside. - [ ] Add the remaining water and the *biga* to the yeast mixture - [ ] Add the flour and the salt mixture one cup at a time with a wooden spoon. - [ ] As the dough becomes hard to stir, mix and knead by hand. The dough will become wet and sticky. - [ ] While kneading, add flour until the dough becomes soft and elastic. (The proportions above will require a decent amount of flour to be added!) - [ ] Place the dough in a lightly oiled bowl and let it rise until tripled, about 3 to 3.5 hours. Seal it in plastic to maintain moisture. - [ ] After the proof, cover a work surface generously in flour. - [ ] Turn out the dough and cover all sides in flour. - [ ] Shape the dough very gently by flattening it a little and fold it over once. Rotate it 90 degrees and fold it again. Flip it over and with both hands on the side, stretch the surface of the dough to make it tight. Push the stretched dough underneath together to make a ball. - [ ] Transfer the dough onto parchment paper, cover with a cloth and let rise for about an hour. - [ ] Preheat the oven to 450˚F. - [ ] Before baking, score the dough with a sharp knife or [lame](https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RotTycHq-5Q). - [ ] Bake for 35-45 min at 450˚F until golden brown. (Be sure to cover it after about 10 min to prevent our oven from burning the top!) <img src="https://i.imgur.com/XxQxe00.jpg" style="zoom: 50%;" /> Some other recipes for *Pane Casereccio* suggest baking in a Dutch oven or cast iron pan with a lid. (I first saw this in recipes for *filone*, a term that simply refers to the an elongated shape of Italian sourdough bread.) Try it at 425˚F for 45-50 min. Remove the lid after about 15 minutes. ### Variations Add seeds! - 60 g pumpkin seeds, chopped - 45 g sunflower seeds, chopped - 15 g sesame seeds - 5 g poppy seeds Add these to the dough before kneading. Before laming, mist the bread with water, then sprinkle extra seeds on top, or egg wash and sprinkle with poppy seeds. Be sure to cover the loaf abou 10-15 min into the bake to prevent the seeds from over-cooking. --- ## Focaccia ![](https://i.imgur.com/61t3Gke.jpg) Last baked 27 August 2022 Easy and delicious. Goes really well with any improvished [tapas](https://www.google.com/search?q=olive+caper+tapas+recipe). Based on the [recipe from @gimmesomeoven](https://www.gimmesomeoven.com/rosemary-focaccia-bread/). ### Ingredients - 1 1/3 cups water, warmed to 110˚F (use a thermometer) - 2 tsp honey - 2 1/4 tsp active dry yeast - 3 1/2 cups flour (all-purpose or bread flour) - 1/3 cup extra virgin olive oil - 2 tsp flaky sea salt - 2 sprigs fresh rosemary (or substitute almost any topping) ### Preparation - [ ] **Start the yeast.** Mix yeast, warm water and honey in a large mixing bowl. Let stand for 5-10 min, until foamy. - [ ] **Knead the dough.** Gradually stir in the flour, olive oil and salt until a shaggy dough begins to form. Then turn the dough out onto a floured surface and knead by hand for 5 minutes until smooth, adding extra flour if the dough feels too sticky - [ ] **First rise.** Shape the dough into a ball and place it in a greased mixing bowl, and cover. Let the dough rest in a warm location for 45-60 minutes, or until it has doubled in size. - [ ] **Second rise.** Shape the dough into a large circle or rectangle until that the dough is about 1/2-inch thick. Cover and let the dough continue to rise for another 20 minutes. - [ ] **Prepare the dough.** Heat oven to 400°F. Transfer the dough to a large parchment-covered baking sheet (or press it into a 9 x 13-inch baking dish). Use your fingers to poke deep dents — all the way down — all over the surface of the dough. Then brush olive oil evenly all over the top of the dough, and sprinkle evenly with the fresh rosemary needles and sea salt. - [ ] **Bake** for 20 minutes, or until the dough is slightly golden and cooked through. ![](https://i.imgur.com/MTaSxQM.jpg) ### Variations **Roasted garlic**: Peel 1/4 cup of garlic cloves. Place in a packet of foil and drizzle with olive oil (optionally also salt and pepper). Bake at 400˚F for 30 min. Roughly chop and top the Focaccia dough before it's baked. **Za'atar**: Add 2 Tbsp Za'atar to the dough. Sprinkle liberally on top before it goes into the oven. --- ## Sourdough Focaccia ![](https://i.imgur.com/FVpR6UM.jpg) Last made: 23 August 2022 This version of focaccia takes longer to make, but it is much more flavorful! Modified from the recipe by [King Arthur Flour](https://www.kingarthurbaking.com/recipes/sourdough-focaccia-recipe). ### Ingredients - 170g ripe (fed) sourdough starter - 170g water at 105-110˚F - 360g (about 3 cups) bread flour - 37g olive oil - 9g salt - 43g honey - 1 tablespoon instant yeast ### Preparation - [ ] Mix the yeast , warm water and some of the honey in a large mixing bowl. Let stand for 10 min. - [ ] Add the sourdough starter, then all the other dough ingredients - [ ] Knead for 12 to 15 min - [ ] Place the dough in a bowl that's been lightly coated with olive oil, cover, and rise for 60 min. - [ ] Gently fold the dough over 3-4 times. Rise another 60 min. - [ ] Turn our convection oven's rack into a baking tray: Line the interior with aluminum foil. - [ ] Coat the tray generously with olive oil. - [ ] Move the dough into the try and turn it over to coat it with oil. - [ ] Gently stretch the dough into the edges and corners of the tray. As soon as the dough begins to shrink back, cover it, and let it rest for 10-15 min. Repeat as necessary, until the dough fills the tray. - [ ] Cover the tray and transfer it to the refrigerator to let the dough rise for 14 to 16 hours (overnight). - [ ] Remove the tray from the refrigerator and let it rest 30 min. - [ ] Just before you're ready to bake, gently dimple the dough at irregular intervals with your fingers, pressing down firmly but not abruptly; you don't want to deflate the focaccia too much. - [ ] Drizzle or brush about 2 tablespoons olive oil on top of there dough. - [ ] Optionally, sprinkle with rosemary, flaked sea salt, or other herbs. - [ ] Bake at 425˚F for 22 minutes, until light golden brown. - [ ] Cool on a wire rack. ### Variations ![](https://i.imgur.com/ohUK91n.jpg) **Breakfast Focaccia**: Instead of coating the dough with oliver oil prior to baking, cover it with crumble topping. - 95 g all-purpose flour - 110 g brown sugar - 65 g cropped pecans - 82 g (6 Tbsp) butter, cold - 3/8 tsp cinnamon - 1/4 tsp salt Chop the butter. Combine all the ingredients, and work the butter into the mix. --- ## Panettone ![](https://i.imgur.com/u0plbkI.jpg) Last made for July 4th, 2021. A traditional Italian bread from Christmas, although everyone loves this bread year round. It works for breakfast or as a dessert. Goes well with cream cheese or butter. Modified from the recipe by [the brown-eyed baker](https://www.browneyedbaker.com/panettone-recipe/). Doing this right takes 3 days, so plan ahead! ### Ingredients - 1 cup dried fruit, such as golden and regular raisins, dates, or dried apricots - 0.5 cup golden rum - 2/3 cup (100 g) candied orange peel - 3.75 cups (468.75 g) all-purpose flour - 2/3 cup (133.33 g) granulated sugar - 1/2 tsp active dry yeast - 1/2 tsp salt - zest of half a medium lemon - 1/2 tsp vanilla extract - 3 eggs, at room temperature - 2/3 cup (166.67 ml) tepid water - 1 tablespoon honey - 10.5 Tbsp unsalted butter, softened - 1 Tbsp unsalted butter, melted - 1 Tbsp unsalted butter, chilled ### Preparation #### Day 1: Fruit - [ ] In a small bowl, combine the dried fruit with the rum and a few Tbsp hot water. Soak at room temperature, stirring occasionally, overnight or until raisins are plump and most of the liquid has been absorbed. - [ ] Clean and cut orange peel into strips about 2 cm by 3 mm. (A [channel knife](https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eYtUR4zZMdk) makes this easy!) Boil them in a saturated sugar solution until they become soft and translucent ([candied citron](https://www.aspicyperspective.com/the-easiest-candied-orange-peel-recipe/)). :::info Most of the candied citron should go into the bread, but save some attractive peices to decorate the top of the loaf after baking. ::: #### Day 2: Prove - [ ] Combine the dry ingredients: flour, sugar, yeast, salt, and lemon zest. - [ ] In another bowl, whisk together the eggs, tepid water, vanilla extract and honey. - [ ] Mix the egg mixture into the flour mixture. - [ ] Add the softened butter, a few tablespoons at a time, mixing thoroughly before adding more. - [ ] Mix until the dough is smooth and elastic. - [ ] Decant the rum from the dried fruit and stir the fruit together with the candied citron and 1 Tbsp of melted butter. Stir this mixture into the dough. :::info The fruit-infused rum is delicious! It will have a flavor like port. ::: - [ ] Place the dough in a large, covered bowl to rise overnight (8-12 hours). It should nearly tripled in volume. #### Day 3: Bake - [ ] After the first rise, turn the dough out onto a work surface and gently shape it into a round loaf. - [ ] Transfer to a large spring-form pan. Using cooking spray or line the pan with parchment paper. - [ ] Cover with plastic or a damp towel and let the dough rise again in a warm place. The dough will not rise much in the oven, so look for it to have its final shape, rising just above the top of the mold. This may take 3 to 5 hours. - [ ] If desired, score the surface of the loaf, and place the chilled tablespoon of butter in the center of the mark. - [ ] Bake at 360˚F for 75 to 90 minutes. Check bread at about 40 minutes and cover loosely with aluminum foil to prevent over-browning of the top. :::warning We have struggled to optimize the baking time and temperature. The [orginal recipe](https://www.browneyedbaker.com/panettone-recipe/) calls for 60-75 min at 370˚F, but we find this leaves the interior uncooked. The good news is that this recipe is pretty forgiving. ::: - [ ] Turn the bread out on a rack to cool. --- ## Anadama ![](https://i.imgur.com/bmN3hWi.jpg) Modified from recipes by [King Arthur](https://www.kingarthurbaking.com/recipes/new-england-anadama-bread-recipe) and [All Recipes](https://www.allrecipes.com/recipe/16245/anadama-bread/). Last baked 20 March 2022 ### Ingredients - 3/4 cup cornmeal - 1 1/4 teaspoons salt - 3 tablespoons butter - 1/2 cup molasses - 1/2 cup + 2 Tbsp water - 1/2 cup milk - 2 1/2 teaspoons active dry yeast - 2 1/2 cups All-Purpose Flour - 1/2 cup Whole Wheat Flour ### Preparation #### Start the yeast - [ ] Warm the 1/2 cup of milk to 110˚F. Add 2 1/2 tsp active dry yeast. Stir, and let stand for 10 minutes. #### Soak the cornmeal - [ ] Boil 1/2 cup of water. - [ ] Whisk together the cornmeal and salt. - [ ] Add the butter and molasses to the bowl. - [ ] Pour in the boiling water, stirring until the butter has melted and the mixture is smooth. Let the mixture cool to 110˚F. #### Create the dough - [ ] Combine the cornmeal mix, yeast solution and flour into a dough and knead for 10 minutes. - [ ] Lightly oil a large mixing bowl. Place the dough in the bowl. Coat the dough with oil. Cover and prove until doubled in volume, about 1 hour. - [ ] Gently deflate the dough, and shape it. Place in a loaf pan. Cover the pan, and let the dough rise about 90 minutes. - [ ] Bake at 375°F for 45 minutes, until the interior temperature is at least 190°F. ### Variations - Substitute 1/2 cup rye flour for the whole wheat flour. --- ## Challah ![](https://i.imgur.com/ddBoo86.jpg) > Yes, slightly overdone! Last made February 7, 2022. Based on recipes from Mark Bitteman's *How to Cook Everything* and the [New York Times Cooking section](https://cooking.nytimes.com/recipes/7199-my-favorite-challah). ### Ingredients - 5 cups all-purpose flour - 2 tsp salt - 2.5 tsp active dry yeast - 1 Tbsp honey - 1/4 cup sugar - 3 eggs, plus 1 yolk - 1 1/3 cups warm milk - poppy or sesame seeds for sprinkling :::warning Bitteman uses only honey for sweetness, while the NYT recipe uses about twice this amount of sugar. Consider it a matter of taste. Bitteman's recipe also includes saffron. ::: ### Preparation - [ ] (Optional) Start the yeast in some warm water, with about 1 tsp sugar. - [ ] Combine the flour, salt and yeast (if dry). - [ ] In another bowl, whisk 3 eggs, honey, and remaining sugar and water/milk. (Save the 4^th^ yolk for an egg wash later.) - [ ] Slowly mix the wet solution into the dry ingredients to create the dough. - [ ] Knead the dough. It should not be too wet. - [ ] Transfer the dough to a bowl, cover, and prove at least 1 hour or until it has doubled in size. - [ ] Knock back the dough and cut it into 3 equal pieces. Shape each into a ball. - [ ] Rest 15 min. - [ ] Roll each dough ball into a rope about 14 inches long. - [ ] Braid the strands. ![](https://toriavey.com/images/2010/08/How-to-Braid-Challah-9.png =400x) - [ ] Transfer to a large spring-form pan. - [ ] Rest 30 min, while the oven pre-heats. - [ ] Beat the egg yolk with 1 tsp water and brush onto the top of the loaf. - [ ] Sprinkle with poppy or seasame seeds. - [ ] Bake at 375˚F for 45 min, or until an internal temperature of 200˚F. :::warning In our convection oven, place the pan in the air frying basket on the bottom rungs. Cover the loaf with aluminum foil after 5 min. Otherwise the top will burn. ::: - [ ] Turn the bread out to cool on a rack. ![](https://i.imgur.com/74Suctw.jpg) --- ## Sourdough Pancakes Recipe from [The Clever Carrot](https://www.theclevercarrot.com/2020/05/homemade-fluffy-sourdough-pancakes/). Last made 22 May 2022 ### Ingredients - 1 1/2 cups (190 g) all purpose flour - 2 tbsp. (24 g) sugar - 1/2 tsp. fine sea salt - 2 tsp. baking powder - 1 tsp. baking soda - 1 cup (240 g) sourdough starter (discard or bubbly) - 2 large eggs - 1 cup (240 ml) milk - 3 tbsp. (42 g) melted butter or oil ### Procedure - In a large bowl, whisk the dry ingredients together. - Add the wet ingredients. Whisk gently. - In a large skillet, melt a small pat of butter over medium-low heat. Swirl the pan around to coat. - Pour about 1/3 cup of batter into the pan. Cook for 1-2 minutes, lowering the heat as needed. When the edges begin to puff up and bubbles appear on the surface, flip it over. Cook for another minute or so. - You can keep cooked pancakes warm in the oven at 250˚F. Link to untested [Bread Ideas](https://hackmd.io/@aphanotus/breadideas) Link to the old [Bread Machine Recipes](https://hackmd.io/@aphanotus/breadmachine)