--- tags: 111上 --- # Parallel Programming HW4 > 310552027 Chia-Liang Kuo ### Q1. MPI Hello World 1. **How do you control the number of MPI processes on each node?** - I use mpirun -np [num] --hostfile hosts mpi_hello to control the number of MPI processes by specifying [num] 2. **Which functions do you use for retrieving the rank of an MPI process and the total number of processes?** - retrieving the rank: MPI_Comm_rank(MPI_COMM_WORLD, &rank_size) - retrieving the total number of processes: MPI_Comm_size(MPI_COMM_WORLD, &world_size) ### Q2. pi_block_linear.cc 1. Why MPI_Send and MPI_Recv are called “blocking” communication? - "blocking" means the sender will wait until the receiver get the messages from sender, and the receiver will wait for the messages from sender. 2. Measure the performance (execution time) of the code for 2, 4, 8, 12, 16 MPI processes and plot it ![](https://i.imgur.com/sbnMAky.png) ### Q3. pi_block_tree 1. Measure the performance (execution time) of the code for 2, 4, 8, 16 MPI processes and plot it. (1 points) ![](https://i.imgur.com/4NUEKFU.png) 2. How does the performance of binary tree reduction compare to the performance of linear reduction? - I think the performance of binary tree reduction is averagely better than linear reduction, especially when the number of MPI processes increased 3. Increasing the number of processes, which approach (linear/tree) is going to perform better? Why? Think about the number of messages and their costs - **in the linear reduction implementation**: the master MPI process has a time complexity of O(N) to receive the messages from the other MPI processes. - **int the binary tree reduction implementation**: some of the MPI process will share the burden of receiving messages, which let the master MPI process only has a time complexity of O(log(N)) to receive messages from other processes. - Besides, the master MPI process need to wait all the other MPI processes to finishing the computation in linear reduction method, which may be more probably that the execution time bounded by the slowest process. ### Q4. pi_nonblock_linear 1. Measure the performance (execution time) of the code for 2, 4, 8, 12, 16 MPI processes and plot it. ![](https://i.imgur.com/ffVAoms.png) 2. What are the MPI functions for non-blocking communication? - Non-blocking communication process return immediately even if the communication is not finished yet. We must call MPI_Wait(), MPI_Waitall() or MPI_Test() to see whether the communication has finished. ![](https://i.imgur.com/yYMy2fo.png) 3. How the performance of non-blocking communication compares to the performance of blocking communication? - In my case, the performance of non-blocking linear reduction drastically outperforms the linear reduction one when using 8, 12 processers, but when using larger number of processers (i.e., 16), the performance will be slightly worse than the linear one. I think the main reason is the overhead increases when calling MPI_Wait function with larger number of processer. ### Q5. MPI_Gather 1. Measure the performance (execution time) of the code for 2, 4, 8, 12, 16 MPI processes and plot it. (1 points) ![](https://i.imgur.com/w2Wg6wA.png) ### Q6. MPI_Reduce 1. Measure the performance (execution time) of the code for 2, 4, 8, 12, 16 MPI processes and plot it ![](https://i.imgur.com/DQfDHgX.png) ### Q7. Describe what approach(es) were used in your MPI matrix multiplication for each data set. When computing matrix multiplication, we need to input a matrix A with size ${n \times m}$ and another matrix B with size ${m \times l}$ then output the matrix C wirh size ${n \times l}$ the each element ${C[i][j]}$ is the dot product of ${A[i]}$ and ${B^T[j]}$ - Basic method: Assume there are k MPI processers. - First, split the matrix A into k sub-matrices with size ${\frac{N}{k} \times M}$. ![](https://i.imgur.com/hSUjdbR.png) - Then, send k-1 such matrices and the whole matrix B to the other MPI processers from the master processer - Each MPI process computes the result of the multiplication of the sub-matrix of A and the whole matrix B, then the results will be sent to the master processer. ![](https://i.imgur.com/wYiMk57.png) - The master MPI processer output the result of the matrix multiplication results C. ![](https://i.imgur.com/8mr5rLd.png) This basic method has a performance issue: when the array size B is quite large, we need to spend many time in sending data to other MPI processes. As a results, I tried another method that could drastically reduce the message size. - Modified method: Assume there are k MPI processers. - First, the modified method will define a constant called MAX_BUFFER that limiting the max size of the sending buffer, then deciding an variable called iterations, which make sure that ${\frac{N \times M}{iterations} < \text{MAX_BUFFER} }$ and ${\frac{M \times L}{iterations} < \text{MAX_BUFFER} }$ - Then, split the matrix A and B into k sub-matrices with size ${\frac{N}{k} \times M}$ and ${\frac{M}{k} \times L}$. - Then, send k-1 such matrices from A and B to the other MPI processers from the master processer. - Each MPI process computes the result of the multiplication of the sub-matrix of A and the sub-matrix B, then the results will be sent and sum up to the master processer. After such process we can get the partial answer of matrix C. See the schematic diagram below: this process will compute the partial answer of multiplication results of C ![](https://i.imgur.com/kB8W5rj.png) - Sadly, there were some bugs in my code and I couldn't figure out how to solve the problems. Finally, I only implemented the basic version that was quite slow :((